OUR CHOICE: The Gathering 2013

until 23 February 2013

Each year the Crawford Art Gallery presents the exhibition Our Choice, where staff choose individual works of art from the collection. Our Choice includes both well-known works of art and some that might otherwise be overlooked. The theme this year is The Gathering, where staff have chosen paintings, prints and sculptures that tie in with the notion of homecoming, domestic life and social gatherings.

The selection is balanced between scenes that are cheerful and uplifting, and those that depict the harsher side of life.

Some of the images provide reassurance and comfort, others are a reminder of the economic factors that led to mass emigration from Ireland, to Britain, Australia and the United States. As a result of such emigration over the past two hundred years, most families in Ireland now have overseas relatives, and many aspects of Irish culture flourish today in cities as diverse as Sydney and San Francisco.

United States of Europe

8–30 March 2013

In partnership with Cork Civic Trust and National Sculpture Factory. United States of Europe is part of the Culture Connects Programme of Ireland’s Presidency of the Council of the European Union.

This project was initiated by the Goethe Institut, Paris.

Download the booklet here (pdf 936k)

Further information here.

Parental Advisory
Parents, please be advised that you may find some of the artwork unsuitable for children under 16. Please see the work for youself or consult with the invigilator of the exhibition before viewing it with your children.


17 January–2 March 2013

Schoolwork is a series of paintings detailing the everyday life of Presentation College, a co‐educational secondary school in Carlow. The school commissioned the artist as part of the 1% for Art Scheme. The series is a contemporary portrait of the school, and by extension the education system of today.

Blaise Smith painted daily in the classrooms from September 2011 to the first day of the Leaving Certificate in May 2012. Portraying events from the mundane minutiae to the fully present and engaged class participant, Smith's work describes the visual language and the mechanics of the school thus enabling the viewer to observe and reflect upon the community of the school.

Blaise Smith was born in 1967. He has exhibited widely and has won many awards, commissions and been selected in numerous juried exhibitions notably the RHA Annual in Dublin and the BP Portrait Award at the National Portrait Gallery, London. He was elected an Associate Member of the Royal Hibernian Academy in 2012.

Artist Talk: Thursday 7 February, 5:30 pm

For guided tours and education contact: anneboddaert@crawfordartgallery.ie

False Optimism

12 April–1 June 2013


In partnership with the Autocenter Gallery in Berlin, the Crawford Art Gallery is pleased to present, from 12 April to 1 June 2013, False Optimism, an exhibition of contemporary art from Berlin.

Not based on any single theme, False Optimism is a group exhibition that includes a diversity of styles and media, as represented in the work of fifteen artists. The artists include some at the beginning of their careers, while others have considerable experience of surviving in a tough art world. Although in False Optimism there is a focus on the art being made in one city, at the same time there is no characteristic in the work that identifies it as being 'Berlin art'. The artists tend to respond to the same issues being addressed by other major cities; issues such as identity, globalization, personal and historic narratives, and the deconstruction of the art object. Berlin today attracts artists from all over the world. It has a vitality that is undeniable, and with rents comparatively low and studio space plentiful, has become a mecca for young artists from around the world, who add their own individual creative imagination to the city's art scene.

Among the works in False Optimism are Absolute Vitality Inc. (2012) a metal construction set up for the company founded by the American artist duo AIDS-3D (aka Daniel Keller and Nik Kosmas). Members of the public are invited to buy shares in this company and the work is a commentary on the nature of international capital and wealth creation. The painter TATJANA DOLL presents three large canvases depicting the popular Belgium comic series Lucky Luke as bright distorted silhouettes, while the paintings of EBERHARD HAVEKOST range from dark forest scenes to large grey, washed-out images of everyday scenes and images taken from newspaper reports. One of the four Irish artists in False Optimism, DECLAN CLARKE will show for the first time in Ireland his major new work, a video film entitled We Are Not Like Them (2013). Following the travels of an unnamed and anonymous individual, perhaps a secret agent, to four post-industrial cities in Europe, We Are Not Like Them references cinema of the 1950's, the spy novels of John le Carré and today's Europe, where manufacturing industries have closed, causing unemployment and urban decay.

DENNIS MCNULTY will create a site-specific installation which produces a proto-cinematic experience in an upper corridor of the Crawford Art Gallery. McNulty is also represented in the exhibition with The time inside (the spoil) (2012) inspired by modernism and design. IL-JIN ATEM CHOI and BECKER SCHMITZ will create an installation within a room using only post-it notes, while large black ink line drawings by Il-Jin connect his art with that of Henri Michaux and the Tachiste movement. A descendant of the eighteenth century French painter Girodet, JULIETTE BONNEVIOT's most recent work, Rush Hour Gate (2012) translates the subtitles from a Jackie Chan movie into hand-painted Chinese ideograms. An artist from the Netherlands, PEGGY FRANCK uses a variety of materials to create her three-dimensional installations that provide a commentary on materials and the language of sculpture. The exhibition will showcase several works by Franck, including Drawing From a Store of Thought (2012), a large coloured translucent installation, shown in the eighteenth-century room at the Crawford and A household without responsibilities (2013), Franck’s most recent sculpture, consisting of objects and artifacts in a bathtub.

Norwegian artist, YNGVE HOLEN regularly employs recycled consumer goods and industrial materials in his sculptures. Works such as Sensitive to Detergent, Fast as Schnell (2012) and Sensitive to Detergent, Drive the Change (2012) have used discarded washing machine parts to create these assemblage works that comment on how people respond to, and are affected by, advances in technology.

The sculptor KITTY KRAUS works with a materials such as glass, ice, light bulbs and mirrors; materials that are highly fragile and have the potential towards failure. Because of their fragile nature, Kraus’ sculptures usually need to be constructed on-site, and so her works in the exhibition, Untitled (Spieggellampe) (2006-ongoing), small mirrored cubes emitting light that creates an array of patterns in a darkened space, will be made by the artist specially for False Optimism.

Co-curator for False Optimism and co-founder of Autocenter, JOEP VAN LIEFLAND’s work deconstructs notions of high or popular culture, by using mixed visual metaphors. van Liefland will show 5-2012 (2012), a bronze sculpture representing VHS tapes, that relates to the ongoing theme in his work of redundant technologies. Belgium born artist, PHILIP METTEN makes large metallic robotic-like sculptures, including Drone (2012). Exhibited in a glass museum case, Drone is a playful take on contemporary culture. Irish artist ÚNA QUIGLEY's video, The Gifted Water (2012), is a psychological portrait of a person’s individual struggle to find expression. The film features Berlin-based performance artist Sheena McGrandles. In works such as Lynx Effect (2012), constructed from a metal sword and empty bottles of shower gel, TIMUR SI-QIN highlights the fantasy worlds created in advertising. Si-Qin's work responds to consumerist imagery and the public response to advertising.

False Optimism will include photographic works by CIARÁN WALSH, images taken in the darkened interiors of the Ethnological Museum in Berlin with a high-speed camera.

Autocenter, Berlin was founded by Maik Schierloh and Joep van Liefland in 2001, and showcases the work of young artists in Berlin.

Supported by DAHG and the Goethe-Institut, Irland, False Optimism coincides with the programme of events in Ireland for the EU presidency in 2013.

False Optimism 
exhibitionwas initiated by Peter Murray, Director at the Crawford Art Gallery, Cork and co-curated with Joep van Liefland and Maik Shierloh at the Autocenter, Berlin.

A fully illustrated publication for the exhibition False Optimism, featuring essays by the Director of the Crawford Art Gallery, Peter Murray and Dominikus Müller, writer and associate editor of frieze d/e will be available in the Crawford Art Gallery bookshop. 

For images and press information please contactexhibitions@crawfordartgallery.ie

Thursday 11 April, 2013 at 7pm


14 September–26 October 2013

Crawford Art Gallery is delighted to present 'Seven' - an exhibition of fourteen paintings by Robert Ballagh. 

Seven self-portraits and seven portraits of political and cultural leaders has been assembled to mark the seventh decade in the life of an artist whose career began in the 1960’s and who over the years has not wavered from advocating his ideas and ideals, however controversial, through both art and political activism.

Guided by a moral compass that is no way uniquely Irish, but does stem partly from the traumas of Irish history and society, Ballagh’s life and work reflects a belief in the power of the people and the importance of visionary leaders. His choice of sitters, a personal pantheon of cultural and political heroes, reflects also his individualistic approach and reveals an optimism for the future.

The seven portraits are united by their informality yet at the same time, the poses have a curious formality and sense of occasion. The portrait of Eleanor McEvoy (2012), guitar in hand, echoes the emotional honesty of her songs, while the full-length image of revolutionary leader Fidel Castro (2012), clad in a red blanket, is reminiscent of a Station of the Cross in an Irish church. A religious sub-text can be read also in the cruciform format of the portrait of politician Noel Browne (1985), a radical reformer who was pilloried by conservatives in 1950’s Ireland. The cruciform motif is also present in the portrait of James Joyce (2011) expressing perhaps the writer’s ambivalent attitude towards his native country, one that combined, in equal measure, acceptance and rejection. The writer James Patrick Donleavy (2006) is also represented in this exhibition and an enquiry into the human psyche and the workings of society, is mirrored in the scientific research into the building material of life itself, the structure of DNA, by James D.  Watson (2009). For Ballagh, his portrait of his friend and artist Micheal Farrell (2003), painted following Farrell's death in 2000, stands as a reminder of Farrell's engagement through his art, of many of the social and political issues that Ballagh holds important, as he puts it, Farrell ‘was not afraid to rattle the cage of Irish society’.

Counter-posed with these seven portraits of cultural and political leaders are seven head and shoulders portraits of Ballagh himself, created in the recent past. They are unflinching self-portraits, revealing the hand of time and an inexorable transition from the prime of life into older age. These seven self portraits are full of Ballagh’s best qualities; an acute sense of the present moment, an unflinching honesty, a slightly mischievous sense of humour and a self-deprecation very much in keeping with his Dublin background*.

Accompanying the exhibition, a full-colour publication will be published with essays on the seven cultural and political portrait subjects by prominent figures including Theo Dorgan, Ciaran Carty, Declan Kiberd and Tony Benn. Peter Murray, Director of the Crawford Art Gallery provides an overview of the artist's career.

About the artist: Robert Ballagh
Born in Dublin in 1943, Robert Ballagh studied architecture and worked as an engineering draughtsman, a musician and a postman before taking up painting in 1967. He represented Ireland at the Paris Biennale in 1969.  Major survey exhibitions of his work have taken place in Lund, Warsaw, Sofia and Moscow.  In 2006, the RHA Gallery staged a career retrospective in Dublin.

As a graphic designer he has produced over seventy stamps for An Post and designed the Irish banknotes before the introduction of the euro. His notable work in the theatre includes Samuel Beckett's Endgame, Gate Theatre (1991); Steven Berkoff's production of Oscar Wilde's Salomé, Gate Theatre, Dublin (1998), the staging for the opening ceremony of the Special Olympics in Croke Park, Dublin (2003) and Riverdance.

For 10 years, Ballagh chaired the Irish National Congress, a non-party organisation working for peace in Northern Ireland, and he is currently president of the Ireland Institute, a centre for historical and cultural studies. He served as the first chairman of the Artists' Association of Ireland when it was founded in 1981, and he is a fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science.  Robert Ballagh is the founding chairman of the Irish Visual Artists Rights Organisation.

* Extract from essay by Peter Murray from Seven: Robert Ballagh (2013)

A selection of Robert Ballagh artworks from the Crawford Gallery collection can be seen here.

For further information or images please contact: dawnwilliams@crawfordartgallery.ie


30 April–30 June 2013

Sarah Browne     Gerard Byrne    Felicity Clear    Maud Cotter   Michelle Deignan    Blaise Drummond     
Domestic Godless     Simon English     Mary Fitzgerald 
Patrick Jolley, Rebecca Trost & Inger Lise Hansen Marianne Keating Eoin McHugh    Paul Nugent     
Colin O'Connor   Jennifer Trouton     Daphne Wright

Preview launch: Sunday 28 April, 2:30 pm with the Domestic Godless

The Crawford Art Gallery in partnership with the Office of Public Works, is pleased to present an exhibition of sixteen contemporary artists entitled Prelude Speaker: Contemporary Castletown from April 29 to June 30, 2013 in the stunning setting of the historic Castletown House - in Celbridge, Co. Kildare.

Castletown House is Ireland's most important and largest eighteenth century Palladian style house built between 1722 and 1729 for William Conolly (1662-1729).  The son of a native Irish innkeeper from Ballyshannon, Co. Donegal, he amassed huge wealth through his career in law and dealing in forfeited estates after the Williamite wars.    The title of the exhibition Prelude Speaker: Contemporary Castletown alludes to Conolly's appointment as Speaker of the Irish House of Commons in 1715, before becoming one the the three Lord Justices who administered the country during the frequent absences of the Lord Lieutenant.

Anthropologist Frances Larson has stated “objects are full of ambiguities and entangled histories. They tend to undermine the categories we provide for them, and lead us down unpredictable pathways as we learn from them”*. By exhibiting historical artefacts and contemporary art works together, the exhibition is an attempt to provoke dialogues which challenge traditional exhibition boundaries and to nurture relationships with history. The elaborately decorated and specific function of each room in Castletown provides an irresistible contrast to the more commonplace white cube galleries where contemporary art often resides.

The works selected gently evoke histories and incidences of Castletown’s past as well as creating subtle synergies with the present.  Touching on the possible past times and preoccupations of the inhabitants of Castletown Michelle Deignan’s film Her Fanciful Digression imagines a conversation between 19th Century Irish feminist Anna Doyle Wheeler and English landscape painter John Constable and considers the aesthetics of romanticism within the context of cultural, political and economic changes of the time. Eoin Mc Hugh’s work reflect upon the enlightenment and its scientific classification of the natural world whilst Paul Nugent and Blaise Drummond’s paintings explore visual history to expose truths about memory and the veracity of representation. In the splendidly elegant Long Gallery, three digital photographs by Gerard Byrne of contemporary Venice are juxtaposed with three exquisitely crafted Murano glass chandeliers shipped to Castletown in the late eighteenth century by the incumbent of the house Louisa Conolly. Both elements re-present the histories and ideals of an Italian aesthetics and aspirations.
By contrast, Patrick Jolley, Rebecca Trost & Inger Lise Hansen black and white video Hereafter brings to the mind the last century when Castletown fell into disrepair effortlessly resonating with the current economic climate. Marianne Keating’s commissioned work situated in the Print Room (the only example of a complete eighteenth century print room in Ireland) along with Felicity Clear and Jennifer Trouton’s work allude to the harsh realities of working and living within - and the lack of work without - Castletown’s boundaries. Perception are connecting threads through Maud CotterMary Fitzgerald and Sarah Browne’s respective installations whilst forgotten histories are prevalent in Daphne Wright’s evocative sculptures and Colin O’Connor ingenious work  ‘Ponder’.  To launch the exhibition on the afternoon of Sunday 28 April at 2:30 pm, the gastronomically dadaesque Domestic Godless (artists Stephen Brandes, Irene Murphy & Mick O'Shea) will present a customarily anarchic High Tea, an installation, questionably fit for consumption, in the historic Green Dining Room.

Prelude Speaker: Contemporary Castletown also ponders upon the question as to whether we should let properties like Castletown House speak for themselves or whether we should interact with them and allow them to perpetuate the culturally dynamic role they had in the past? Through video, sculpture, photography, installation and painting Prelude Speaker aims to bring new audiences to this historically charged setting and provides an opportunity for both emerging and established artists to show their work in a unique context.

Prelude Speaker: Contemporary Castletown is made possible through the collaboration of the Office of Public Works, the staff at Castletown House and Crawford Art Gallery, Cork. The artworks are drawn from the generosity of the artists, private and public collections including the Office of Public Works, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Kildare County Council and Crawford Art Gallery, Cork. The National Sculpture Factory has kindly assisted the project.

The exhibition coincides with the significant initiative by the Office of Public Works to enable visitors of Castletown House to be self-guided throughout the rooms of the early eighteenth century residence. 

The exhibition forms part of the Culture Connects programme of Ireland's European Union Presidency.

For further press information or images contact: 
dawnwilliams@crawfordartgallery.ie or caoilfhionn.murphy@opw.ie

How to get to Castletown House
The house is located 20km from Dublin off the N4/M4 Sligo Road From the M4, take exit 6 (R449 Celbridge West/Leixlip West Exit)
From the N7, take exit 4, Rathcoole, following R120 to Newcastle and R405 to Celbridge.

Please note that cars/ buses access is from the above entrance as the avenue from Celbridge is for pedestrian/bicycle access only. There is free parking for cars and coaches from Exit 6 off the M4 at Celbridge West.

GPS/SAT NAV Location: 
Latitude 53.355 and Longitude 6.53 

Pedestrians can get the 67 bus from Merrion Square in the centre of Dublin to Celbridge main street and walk (approx. 15mins) along the historical lime avenue to the House through the parklands.
Please refer to Dublin Bus for bus times.

Opening Times:
Castletown House is open to the general public 10 am to 6pm (last admission to the house is at 4.45pm), Tuesday to Sunday and Bank Holiday Mondays from the 15th March until the 31st of October 2013

Admission to the exhibition is free.
For a guided tour or group bookings or enquiries please telephone +353 1 628 8252
or e-mail castletown@opw.ie 

Please note there is no wheelchair access to the main house.
* Frances Larson (2009), An Infinity of Things: How Sir Henry Wellcome Collected the World, Oxford University Press, Oxford,
p 243- 4


Analysing Cubism

21 June–31 August 2013

Images from the exhbition can be seen here.

Analysing Cubism looks at the work of pioneering Irish artists who travelled to France and further afield to study modern art in some of its forms.

The exhibition seeks to place these artists in context, examining the influence of their teachers, as well as exploring the work of some of the leading
international exponents of Cubism.

The title of the exhibition Analysing Cubism plays on the term ‘Analytic Cubism’ which was used to describe the style of painting developed by Picasso and Braque circa 1910-12. This exhibition takes as its point of origin the principles of early or Analytic Cubism, and follows the the development of Cubism in France primarily through the work of André Lhote and Albert Gleizes, and in Ireland, where artists including Mainie Jellett and Evie Hone adapted Cubist theory to their own needs.

Analysing Cubism shifts focus away from Picasso and Braque who quickly abandoned this form of abstraction to identify the centrality of André Lhote and Albert Gleizes whose roles as teachers of Irish artists made them
particuarly influential.

The exhibition includes the ‘elements’ paintings created by Jellett, Hone and Gleizes in the mid-1920s through to the mid-1930s and the deeply spiritual works made by these artists, often in response to works from the early Renaissance. Works by Lhote and his Irish pupils range through landscape, portraiture and still-life. Analysing Cubism also includes Mainie Jellett’s development from the nudes through to her startling transition into abstraction made with Albert Gleizes.

This project was first proposed by Peter Murray, Director of the Crawford Art Gallery and the exhibition is organised by the Crawford Art Gallery in co-operation with the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin and F.E. McWilliam Gallery & Studio.

Exhibition co-curated by Seán Kissane and Riann Coulter
With the support of the French Embassy in Ireland.

Click here for more information:
Analysing Cubism, Irish Times Article

It's All About Love

17 October–9 November 2013

Glasheen Art Studio Programme Artists:
Noel Barry
Yvonne Condon
Ken DalyJohn Keating
Idé Ní Shúlléabain
Katie Whelan

Glasheen Arts Studio Programme invited the public to “It’s All About Love” on valentines evening 2013.

In this exhibition you can enjoy the art work of six artists inspired by the people and their photographs who visited the Irish Examiner office on 14th. february this year. Mixed in is art work based on famous paintings, photos from advertising and photographs of people who sent us their image later. Wander around, take your time and get inspired by the aspects of love you can find in the artwork: vibrant, gentle, wild, humorous, filled to the full,
immediate and with no doubt, not framed...
Glasheen Arts Studio Programme encourages artists to develop their own unique style and expression. Public engagement is an important part of the programme, creating the opportunity for interaction , conversation and
new creative possibilities.

For further information please contact:

For more information on the exhibition and images
contact Anne Boddaert: anneboddaert@crawfordartgallery.ie 

ourCHOICE A Journey through Different Techniques from 18th. Century to the Present

Ongoing 2014

ourCHOICE is a yearly exhibition where staff members of the Crawford Art Gallery choose works of art from the collection.

This year the exhibition theme has been inspired by the remarkable print collection of the Gallery, that contains over 500 works.

Thanks to the Gallery’s team and their personal insights into the collection, visitors have the opportunity to view how printing techniques can convey different expressions of the artist’s talent.

Some of the techniques have survived through the ages, even when new ones were introduced, such as the examples of engravings by Daniel Maclise (1806-1870) and by Robert Gibbings (1889-1958).

Even important artists of the early 20th Century decided to interpret their art by re-using old techniques like lithography for Joan Miró (1893-1984) or etching for Pablo Picasso (1881-1973).

However, the inkjet print CAD Drawing 6 by Corban Walker (b. 1967) represents a contemporary way of printing.

This exhibition aims at highlighting the different techniques which artists have employed to create their works.

Curated by Francesca Costanzo and Marica Gagliardi 

The Art of Inclusion

13 September–26 October 2013

The Art of Inclusion is an exhibition that will showcase the artwork of over 50 truly unique artists working in supported studio settings.The exhibition is a groundbreaking collaborative project aiming to promote real dialogue around ideas of creativity and ability.

We invite you to get involved in an exciting outreach programme in the Crawford Art Gallery, which will accompany the exhibition. This multi-faceted programme is free of charge and is open to groups and individuals - from school children and teens, to older adults.

The Art of Inclusion is the outcome of a partnership between Cork City Council, Crawford Art Gallery, CIT Crawford College of Art & Design, Mayfield Arts Centre/Newbury House. The exhibition will spread over three venues across Cork City from mid-September until the end of October this year; Crawford Art Gallery located in the heart of the city, the Atrium of the City Hall and CIT Wandesford Quay Gallery.

Artists from Creativity Explored in San Francisco, HAI of New York, KunstwerkplaatsfromAmsterdam,  Rocket Artists (Brighton) as well as Kcat (Kilkenny), St Raphaels (Youghal), Glasheen Artists Studio Programme (Cork) and Cùig (Mayfield, Cork) will showcase an international selection of art by artists with disabilities working in supported studios.

Please find information on how you can get involved below:

Culture Night
Friday 20 September / 5pm – 9pm
Interactive activities hosted by artists from Mayfield Arts Centre, Glasheen Artists’ Studio Programme, alongside special guests from Kunstwerkplaasts, Holland, and Rocket Artists, Brighton. Family Quiz kindly sponsored by Cork Art Supplies.

Workshops for School Groups
This exciting series of themed workshops will explore the world of animals, nature, portraiture and places. Booking is essential.  Workshops are with Mayfield Arts artists/facilitators, as well as artists from the CUIG supported arts studio programme. Please take time time to meet the artists at www.cuigartists.com. Artists from Glasheen Arts Studio Programme will also facilitate workshops. 

Booking is essential/ all workshops are free of charge.

(Theme: Nature) Tuesday 8 October
(Primary Schools)
10.00am – 11.30am
11.45am – 1.15pm
1.30pm – 3pm

(Theme: Portraits) Wednesday 9 October

(Primary & Secondary Schools)
10.00am – 11.30am           
11.45am – 1.15pm                           
1.30pm- 3pm

(Theme: Places) Friday 11 October     
(Primary & Secondary Schools)   
10.00am – 11.30am                       
11.45am – 1.15pm
1.30pm – 3pm

Open Studios
Join us in the stimulating exhibition environment to create some of your own artwork. Art tutors and artists from Mayfield’s Open Studio Programme will support you. This is a drop-in workshop with a limited number of spaces.

Thursday 26 September
10am – 12.30pm
Thursday 3 October
10am – 12.30pm
Thursday 10 October
10am – 12.30pm
Thursday 17 October
10am – 12.30pm
Thursday 24 October
10am – 12.30pm

Workshops for Community Groups
Workshops are with Mayfield Arts artists/facilitators, as well as artists from the CUIG supported arts studio programme. Please take time to meet the artists at www.cuigartists.com Booking is essential.These will introduce artwork from the exhibition, sharing creative tips and techniques. Community Groups are invited to book the following time slots. Booking is essential.

Tuesday 1 October 
Tuesday 15 October 
Tuesday 22 October 

Meet the Artist
This is an opportunity to meet some of the artists and explore how they approach their creative work. You will have the opportunity to ask questions and gain insight into their life and work as artists.

Saturday 28 September 
Saturday 5 October
Saturday 12 October                       
Saturday 19 October                       
Saturday 26 October           


Email: emmaklemencic@crawfordartgallery.ie
Tel: 021 4907862
Web: www.artofinclusion.org

Outside In Sponsors

Landscape and Irish Identity

Ongoing 2013

While the notion of a people's identity being embedded in the landscape is very ancient, as revealed in the careful siting of Neolithic monuments such as Newgrange or the Bronze Age stone circle at Drombeg, the idea of the Irish landscape and its people being synonymous has never disappeared over the centuries. The origins of place-names forms the basis of the Dinnseanchas, or topographical poems, many of which date to the Early Christian Period and even earlier.  [illustration, CAG: Edith Somerville Grave of a Chieftain, or a Holy Place of the DruidsIn the seventeenth century there was a revival of interest in landscape, inspired by the Classical writers of Greece and Rome. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the "Grand Tour" led wealthy British and Irish tourists through France and on to Florence and Rome. The education of these travellers was not considered complete unless they had studied Classical writers such as Horace, Virgil and Cicero. They brought back glowing accounts of the beauties of the Italian landscape, while the bay of Naples and Vesuvius were the subject of paintings acquired to embellish houses in Ireland.

However, from around 1700 onwards there was also a growing appreciation of landscapes closer to home, of the mountains and lakes of Killarney, Antrim and Wicklow. [illustration, CAG: 18c Irish school: Extensive Landscape with Figure on HorsebackIn 1740, at the annual exhibition of the Dublin Society Drawing Schools, Susanna Drury won a prize for her painting of The Giant’s Causeway. Drury’s view was so popular that it was later engraved by François Vivares and published as a print. In 1770, Jonathan Fisher, who lived in Great Ship Street in Dublin, published a series of large aquatint etchings, Views of Killarney. The six prints included The Eagle’s Nest, The Canal between the Lakes and O’Sullivan’s Cascade and the Lakes of Killarney. Fisher etched these plates himself, basing them on his own paintings. He reckoned on finding a ready market amongst the tourists who were beginning to travel to Killarney, and the fact that he continued to produce prints for many years showed that this optimism was not misplaced. In 1789 Fisher published a second portfolio, containing twenty views of Killarney. [illustration, CAG] Early tourists in Kerry extolled the landscape by evoking Roman poetry and the work of painters of Italy such as Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa. This enthusiasm was not unique to Ireland: during the eighteenth century in England, Scotland and Wales, there was also a new interest in areas such as the Lake District, Snowdonia and the Highlands. Travellers in search of views often carried with them a special darkened convex mirror called a "Claude Glass". This small optical device harmonized the light and dark tones of sunlit hills and woodlands and was so-called because it made landscapes appear more like a painting by Claude Lorrain (an effect not dissimilar to nowadays viewing a landscape through Polaroid sunglasses, or using Instagram software to make a photograph look old).

In many ways, the early Georgian era in Ireland appears to be a triumph of rationality, order and restraint, symbolised by elegant streets, neatly-planted trees, squares and Palladian country houses. The houses were surrounded by deer parks, and the views from the windows were enhanced by carefully-placed follies, temples and monuments. Prospects were created, and enhanced, by the plantings of trees, digging of lakes and canals, and even by the remodelling of the landscape itself. Classical statues were imported from Italy, along with paintings, but what is remarkable in the 1700's is the rapid growth of a tradition of Irish landscape painting, led by William Ashford, Jonathan Fisher, Robert Carver, George Mullins, Thomas Roberts and Solomon Delane. These talented artists adapted the conventions of Dutch and Italian landscape painting, to convey a sense of the sweeping Irish skies and wooded hillsides. Paintings of Irish demesnes, prospects and houses added to the air of self-confidence that characterized estates owned by families such as Fitzwilliam, Powerscourt and Lucan. Two paintings of Tourin house on the river Blackwater are good examples of William Ashford’s work, while his painting of the bridge at Killarney also has a Claudean atmosphere, steeped in evening sunlight. The leading landscape painters in Cork were John Butts and Nathaniel Grogan, the latter publishing a set of aquatint views of the River Lee and Cork Harbour.

The Georgian era may have appeared calm on the surface, but in reality it was an era of rapid urban development, property speculation and a widening gulf between rich and poor. The wealthy patrons who commissioned views of their estates by Roberts and Ashford preferred the landscapes to appear ‘natural’, glossing over the fact they had been created by decades of hard toil. In the Arcadian landscapes created by these artists, it is difficult to see anyone actually working. The fields tinged with autumnal gold are empty of the farm labourers who made and tended those same green acres. In many paintings there may be a fisherman or a picturesque figure leaning on a staff, in the foreground, to lend a sense of scale, but otherwise these views are remarkable in that they avoid depicting the reality of what was a populous, and increasingly troubled, countryside. [illustration, CAG: John Butts (attr.) Herdsmen and Sheep Resting; 18th century school, Landscape with Figures, Lake and Tower on Hill] Such paintings can be equated with the poetry of Virgil or Horace, who described the golden sunsets, woodlands and well-tended fields of Italy in Classical times. But while Virgil and Horace praised those who worked on the land, making it rich and productive, the reality of a divided society in Ireland can be seen in the fact that landscape painters ignored the realities of life for the majority of people who actually ploughed the fields and harvested crops. [illustration, CAG: Nathaniel Grogan Kilcrenagh (1792)]

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the growing political instability in Europe was reflected in a philosophical concept that came to be known as the Sublime. This concept, if not invented by the Irish philosopher and statesman Edmund Burke, was certainly popularized by him through his influential book A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, published in 1757. Burke’s early years and education, with his mother's family, the Nagles of the Blackwater valley in north Cork, had given him a keen appreciation of the beauties of the Irish landscape. Later, when working as a lawyer in Dublin he was drawn to the mountains of Wicklow, and he encouraged George Barret and other artists to paint scenes such as Powerscourt waterfall from life, rather than from notes, or from memory, in the studio. Burke’s urging to artists to draw directly from nature was in many ways revolutionary, and reflected a growing appreciation of the beauties of the Irish landscape, and a turning away from the Classical models that had governed art and literature up to that time. Burke wrote that the idea of the sublime lay in the struggle for individual survival in a potentially hostile landscape. He associated ‘the beautiful’ with forms of social interaction necessary for the survival of humanity in a more collective sense. Burke proposed a graduated scale of the Sublime, in which astonishment lay halfway between respect and terror. He understood that certain colours, forms and textures triggered intuitive responses within the onlooker’s mind, such as the association of curving lines with gentleness of form and femininity. The sublime, with its precipices and chasms, he considered more a masculine territory. With these leaps of association, Burke invested nature with a gendered construct based on the social mores of his time. It was a philosophy that found a ready audience amongst intellectuals anxious to consolidate a sense of nationhood and establish a meaningful relationship between city dwellers and the land. [illustration, CAG: James Barry Orpheus Instructing a Savage People in the Art of Social Life etching]

As revolution swept Europe and the subsequent rule of Napoleon ensured that France and Italy were off-limits to many who would have previously traveled to Paris and Rome, interest in picturesque and sublime landscapes of Ireland became all the more significant. Burke’s theories took on a new meaning, as artists equated the turmoil and terror in Europe with visual elements in their paintings such as jagged precipices, steep cliffs, and thunder and lightening. These landscape painters were in fact representing the revolutionary state of politics in their time, and their art is closely linked with the Romantic movement, where figures such as Wolfe Tone and Robert Emmet became immortalised as Romantic heroes of Irish history, even if they were not particularly successful as revolutionary leaders. James Arthur O’Connor’s The Frightened Waggoner is a perfect example of a landscape that has been transformed into a condition of anxiety and fear. The landscape in this painting is dominated by thunderstorms and heavy clouds. A sense of unease pervades the scene. What work remains to be done must be done in a hurry and O’Connor’s frightened waggoner struggles to control his horses, as night and bad weather closes in. O’Connor’s Monk in a Stormy Landscape another key painting from the Romantic period, depicts the frail figure of the monk in danger of being overwhelmed by the wild rocks and trees that dominate the composition. There is a sense in which the Arcadia of the 1770’s has been lost in the intervening three or four decades. Revolution, uprisings and military repressions had by then become the diet of Europe, and of Ireland too.
The Act of Union in 1800 represented for Ireland a binding of liberties, and an end to the heady days of an independent parliament on College Green. Although there was economic prosperity, there was also a hankering after the glories of ancient times. Romantic painters expressed this feeling by focusing on the twilight, depicting the ruins of medieval monasteries in the fading daylight, evoking an Golden Age when present uncertainties were unknown, and the land and a benevolent Gaelic aristocracy had supported abbeys, schools and monasteries, as well as artists and poets. [illustrations, CAG: James Arthur O'Connor Moonlight Scene, James Arthur O'Connor Fishing Scene] A graduate of the Dublin Society’s Drawing Schools, James Arthur O’Connor was one of the leading members of the Romantic movement that swept Europe during the Napoleonic era. Other Irish artists in this movement were Francis Danby and George Petrie. These artists did not travel to Rome to paint classical scenes, but instead looked to the landscapes of Ireland for their inspiration. In the 1820’s, Petrie explored the mountains of Connemara and painted views of sacred sites such as Gougane Barra, Glendalough and Clonmacnoise, places of pilgrimage over many centuries, that had begun to embody a growing sense of national identity in Ireland. [illustration, CAG: George Petrie Glendalough]. A search for political and social liberty began, one that was linked both with the landscape and the remains of an ancient and noble past that could still be found in the countryside; ancient ruined abbeys, monasteries, round towers and high crosses.

Although the movement that began in the 1820’s led eventually to the Celtic Revival, the inspiration for this new way of looking at landscape can be found in books published during this period, such as David Cox’s Treatise on Landscape Painting and Effect in Watercolour (1814) or William Gilpin’s Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, on Picturesque Travel; and on Picturesque Landscape (1792). In these books, the new status of landscape painting was defined and codified. In the early nineteenth century Petrie followed the example of his teacher Henry Brocas in making sketching tours to beauty spots around Dublin. The invention of the small portable Winsor & Newton watercolour box, and the availability of sketchbooks, had liberated artists from the studio and enabled them to travel widely in search of inspiration. Petrie, a fellow-student of Francis Danby and James Arthur O'Connor at the Dublin Society schools, was both a practical artist as well as a Romantic spirit. His watercolours were reproduced in popular books intended for tourists such as Thomas Kitson Cromwell’s Excursions in Ireland, Brewer’s Beauties of Ireland, and G. N. Wright’s Historical Guide to Ancient and Modern Dublin, all published in the early 1820’s. The first three decades of the nineteenth century saw an enormous growth in the publication of such guidebooks, illustrated with steel engravings. These books differed from their eighteenth century predecessors in they were smaller in scale and less expensive: the use of steel rather than copper for printing the engravings meant that they could be mass-produced. Fisher’s A Picturesque Tour of Killarney had contained twenty large aquatint views. Three decades later, the Rev. G. N. Wright’s Guide to Killarney, illustrated by Petrie, was in the bookshops, selling less expensively and to a much wider audience. The views selected by Petrie were the same as those depicted by Fisher, but the scale of his plates is minute by comparison with the eighteenth-century publication. Fisher’s aquatints were intended to be appreciated in the drawing room, while Wright’s was a practical guide-book designed to be carried in the pocket. [illustration, CAG: Wright's Guide to Killarney]

The growing interest in landscape in the nineteenth century was also fuelled by scientists and geologists, who were revising the long-held theories of the origins of the earth and of mankind. As more people explored the coastlines and mountains of Ireland, and pondered on the origins of natural wonders such as stalactites in limestone caves, or the hexagonal basalt rocks of the Giants Causeway, they came to question the Biblical account of the creation of the planet. In the seventeenth century, in Dublin, Archbishop Ussher had worked out, from a close reading of the Old Testament, that the earth had been formed in 4004 BC. The Scottish naturalist James Hutton led the way in a re-evaluation of this unrealistic date. From looking at the actual landscape itself, Hutton realized that the earth was continually being re-formed, with mountains rising and being eroded through millennia. Ussher's theory could no longer be believed by people who looked at the evidence of sedimentary deposits being compressed to form stone, often containing the fossils of long-extinct creatures. Thus, around the mid-nineteenth century, landscape became even more politicised. New theories of the evolution of mankind were linked with the emerging theories of the millions of years it had taken to form the mountains, seas and coastlines of Britain and Ireland. Landscape became the site of an intellectual contest, between those who believed in the Biblical account of creation, and those who favoured the new scientific theories of evolution over millions of years. In the 1820's, the work of George Petrie with the Topographical Department of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland encompassed geology, natural history as well as map-making, and the work of this Department represented an ambitious attempt to properly know and understand the Irish landscape. However, for reasons relating to both cost and politics, the plan to publish a series of Ordnance Survey 'Memoirs' of Ireland, one for each county, was stopped, after just one volume was published.

Petrie’s watercolour of Gougane Barra in West Cork can be compared to the work of Caspar David Friedrich, the Romantic painter considered to have been a key originator of that sense of national consciousness that led to the unification of Germany. [illustration: George Petrie Gougane Barra (etching)]  In Friedrich’s work, as in Petrie’s, a sense of nationhood was to be found in remote mountain valleys and isolated ruined monasteries. Another key Irish artist, younger than Petrie, but very much inspired by his art and writings, was Frederic William Burton. Born near Corofin, Burton studied at the Dublin Society’s schools, before going on to become a successful painter of portraits and genre scenes. There are two sides to Burton’s art. His portraits often depict members of the landed classes, but there was also a Nationalist strain in Burton's art and he was very much aware of the travails facing ordinary Irish people at that time. In the 1850’s he painted scenes in Connemara, and works by him such as The Blind Girl at the Holy Well sustain and develop Petrie's Romantic vision. Burton was friendly with Thomas Davis and sympathetic to the ideals of the Young Ireland movement, a sympathy borne out by his other friendships amongst Ireland’s literary and academic world; George Petrie, Lord Dunraven, Eugene O’Curry and Sir Samuel Ferguson; all members of an intellectual elite that sought to give a cohesive identity to a country divided by sectarianism and class hatred. In this proto-Celtic Renascence, Ireland was given a new cultural identity, similar to that assigned, during those same years, to the peoples of Germany, England and France; a ‘national’ identity largely defined by a sense of inheritance and ownership of property. With politics in Ireland in the late nineteenth century dominated by the Land Wars, it is no surprise that landscape, and to a lesser extent figure painting, emerged as not only the two most dominant genres in early twentieth century Irish art, but also the most political. The tamed landscape and cultivated garden may perhaps be identified with the Anglo-Irish settlement, but the wild landscapes of the West of Ireland became synonymous with the Gaelic peoples, and the possibility of a resurgent nation. The troubled side of the landscape was captured by only a few artists of the nineteenth century, notably the Cork painter Daniel MacDonald [illustration, CAG: Daniel MacDonald (attr.) Eviction Scene (c.1850)].

In the late nineteenth century, the scene shifts to Paris and Antwerp, cities where it became almost mandatory for graduates of art schools in Ireland to finish their education. Joseph Malachy Kavanagh, one of the students who studied in Antwerp, subsequently painted scenes, such as The Cockle Pickers [illustration, CAG], that recall works such as Jean Francois Millet's The Gleaners; paintings that initially appear to be picturesque landscape with figures but in fact turn out to represent poor people struggling to survive on the margins of society. Similiarly, cutting turf as a source of fuel provided picturesque subject-matter for artists but in reality it was often of vital importance to the economic survival of rural families in the West of Ireland. [Gerald Bruen Turf Bank (Bog, Co. Galway)] Hugh Charde, who also studied in Paris, painted Irish scenes such as Inchigeelagh[illustration, CAG] a work that portrays both the beauty but also the windswept and barren nature of Ireland's upland landscape. In fin de siécle Paris, a young Irish art student from Belfast, Paul Henry, fell in love with a fellow student from Scotland, the red-haired Grace Mitchell. Not long afterwards the penniless couple travelled to the West of Ireland and settled amongst the fishing and farming communities of Achill Island. Inspired by Daumier and Van Gogh, Henry’s early paintings depict with painful honesty the harsh struggle for existence on Achill. He depicted people digging potatoes, cutting rye and setting lobster pots. In later years, he continued to produce views of cottages, bogs and mountains, works that became synonymous with the West of Ireland. [illustration, CAG: Paul Henry Lough Altan, Co. Donegal (c.1930); Paul Henry Landscape (c.1925)] However, throughout the early twentieth century, Ireland and its landscape were changing. The Land Act of 1923 continued the process, begun in the late nineteenth century, of breaking up and redistributing estates, through the work of the Land Commission. However, continued migration by farm workers from the land into the cities, and onto emigrant ships to America and Britain, gradually resulted in the countryside becoming depopulated. [illustration CAG: Gerard Dillon Evening StarPainters such as Charles Lamb tried to portray an optimistic vision of Irish country life in the 1930’s, but Lamb’s vision, expressed in works such as Connemara Pattern, was at variance with the realities of life, which saw the elderly remaining at home, and the young emigrating. This reality was expressed more tellingly in paintings such as Himself and Herselfby Power O’Malley, an artist who himself spent much time in the United States and had a direct experience of emigrant life. [illustration, CAG] The imaginative recreation of Irish rural life portrayed in the paintings and prints of Jack Yeats was, like Lamb’s, based both on personal experience and a degree of reality, but was also embellished with literary and metaphysical allusions. [illustration CAG, Jack B. Yeats Returning from the Bathe, Midday (1948): Jack B. Yeats A Race in Hy Brazil (1937)] Something of a retreat from the bewildering world of Irish politics and years of violence can be discerned in the Symbolist paintings of George Russell, who also identified himself with the Greek initials “Æ”. Russell, an artist and intellectual who was closely involved with the agricultural co-operative movement, painted landscapes inhabited by sprites and fairies.

Other painters such as Nathaniel Hone continued to depict the Irish landscape, often working in a more or less Impressionist style that allowed the artist to create works of art while avoiding commenting on social or political matters, even inadvertently. [illustrations, CAG: Nathaniel Hone Sand and Sea Holly; Nathaniel Hone Trees and Fields] But to avoid comment entirely was impossible. The cattle that enlivened landscapes by artists such as Hone, James Humbert Craig and Dermot O'Brien were also a key element in Ireland’s export economy, and while they may have been staples of the artist’s visual repertoire, they were less unreliable as a generator of national wealth, as export markets fluctuated and foot and mouth disease struck. [illustrations, CAG: G. K. Gillespie Owenmore River and Mayo Hills; James Humbert Craig Going to Mass (c.1939)] In the 1920's and 30's Sean Keating became the leading exponent of a style of painting that can be described as Socialist Realism. Setting his allegorical paintings in recognisable landscapes, Keating charted the changing fortunes of Ireland and its people, documenting through his art the War of Independence, and ambitious industrialisation schemes entered into by the Irish Free State, such as the hydroelectric generating station at Ardnacrusha on the Shannon.

While the government struggled to keep the country stable and the economy growing, by keeping both wages and public expenditure low, modernist art made some impact in the cities, in a small number of galleries and in progressive events such as the Irish Exhibition of Living Art. [illustration CAG: Evie Hone Landscape, Co. Wicklow (1947); Norah McGuinness First Snow; Norah McGuinness A Quiet Place or Small Fields of Donegal] However, through the 1930's and 40's landscape and portraiture remained the genres most acceptable to Irish audiences. [illustration CAG: James Humbert Craig Tholla Bhriste, Connemara; Frank McKelvey On the Way to Muckish, Co. Donegal (c.1940); Muriel Brandt An Samhradh Samh (c.1956)] Gerard Dillon produced many works celebrating a rural way of life. [illustration, CAG: Gerard Dillon Island People;Gerard Dillon Returning Islanders]  By the 1960’s, portraits of the people and landscapes of the West of Ireland were becoming clichéd, and were closely linked with tourist marketing. These often sentimentalised images were now avoided, for the most part, by younger artists, keen to look to Europe and the United States for new ideas. Aspects of the landscape continued to resonate however with artists in the 1960's and 70's, most notably with Tony O'Malley, Richard Kingston and Brian Bourke. [illustrations, CAG: Tony O'Malley Hawk and Quarry in Winter, in memory of Peter Lanyon; Colin Middleton August Landscape, Boa Island (c.1965); Richard Kingston Goats Passing the Gap] Patrick Collins in particular was inspired by the sense of past epochs embedded in the landscape and in paintings such as Rainy Landscape, he represents not only a visual impression of the landscape but also his own emotional response to it. Echoes of the past, as embedded in landscape, continue to resonate with contemporary artists such as Alanna O'Kelly, whose 1990 photo-installation, The Country Blooms, a Garden and a Grave, is inspired by the Irish famine and potato blight of a century and a half earlier. Aspects of beauty and the appreciation of landscape inform the paintings of Elizabeth Magill, whose Blue Constrictor represents trees and sky in a manner that, while entirely contemporary, harks back to the Romantic tradition of the early nineteenth century. William Crozier likewise is inspired by an expressionist tradition in painting, in works such as The Ripe Field (1989) and The River Boundary (Lough Hyne) (1988) [illustrations, CAG]. The painter Martin Gale adopts a different approach, painting Irish landscapes with a precision and meticulous style that is close to photo-realism [illustration, CAG: Martin Gale Shortcut (1998). Beneath the apparent calm and innocuous surface of Gale's landscapes however, persists a sense of unease. The romanticism that had inspired paintings of Irish landscape in the early nineteenth century never entirely disappeared and contemporary artists working with photography and video often touch upon themes pertinent to the perception and representation of landscape. Indeed it seems that the most meaningful representations of landscapes, irrespective of date, are those where an awareness of society and politics, while not necessarily visible, is not far from the surface.

Peter Murray 2013


9 November 2013–
4 January 2014

Crawford Art Gallery is delighted to present The Work of Micheal Farrell- an exhibition of spanning the career of one of Ireland's accomplished artists.

Produced by Solstice Arts Centre, the exhibition aims to not only celebrate the work of Micheal Farrell but to encourage a re-evaluation of the artist’s contribution to Irish life as an artist, and as a cultural commentator. Farrell's diverse and engaging work spans over 40 years evolving from an objective, cool abstract formalism, exemplified in the Celtic and Pressé works, to a more subjective figurative expression evidenced in the Pressé Politique and Miss O'Murphy/Madonna Irlanda. The later works being predominantly concerned with issues surrounding Irish identity, politics, culture and history. 

A graduate of St Martin´s School of Art, London, Farrell emerges as one of the most interesting of the group of Irish artists who engaged with Modernist art in the 1960s. Visits to Donegal, London, Paris and New York in the mid-1960s resulted in a body of innovative Celtic series. Working mainly in the new medium of acrylic, Micheal Farrell's intention was to recapture the formal vibrancy of Irish illuminated manuscripts combining geometric and organic elements with the Celtic. His renderings were in tune with the hard-edged abstraction then current internationally.

Disturbed by events in Northern Ireland, Farrell making his acceptance speech for the main award at the 1969 Irish Exhibition of Living Art, at the Crawford Art Gallery, Farrell condemned the situation in Derry and British policy in Northern Ireland, announcing that he would no longer exhibit in the North, "until that State has achieved the basic fundamental of a decent society".  He saw the 1974 Dublin and Monaghan bombings in marking his pivotal shift from objectivity to subjectivity, but it was more a shift in intensity in the imagery he was creating. Rather than appealing vaguely to a utopian ideal of remote Celtic ancestry, as he done previously, Farrell addressed the bloody, intractable nature of contemporary Ireland beginning an acerbic examination of what Ireland had become.  In Farrell's reworking of A Female Nude Reclining on a Chaise-Longue (c.1752) by François Boucher (1703-1770) otherwise known as Miss Marie-Louise O'Murphy, the Irish mistress of Louis XV, she becomes Madonna Irelanda, the personification of Ireland, one scandalously at odds with conventional, pious stereotypes. While he is clearly equating Ireland with the courtesan, he's also implying that his subject is being exploited and abused.

His self-portraits echo his critical analysis of Ireland, suggesting a crisis of masculinity, something that becomes a significant preoccupation that treads a fine line between self-pity and ruthless self-examination. Although he emigrated to France in 1971 with his family, partly as a result of the negative reception when he declared his political position at the ROSC exhibition, Farrell continued to exhibit regularly in Ireland, and in the years following he evolved a personal style in which figurative elements again reappear, often relating to his own particular status and condition, linked with that of his native country.


The Work of Micheal Farrellis produced by Solstice Arts Centre with support of the Arts Council/An Chomhairle Ealíon in realising this touring exhibition.

Accompanying the exhibition, is a full-colour publication will be published with essays by Aidan Dunne, Gerry Walker and Pat & John Taylor.  Price: €15

Access and Education
Public Talks - all welcome

Micheal Farrell
Vera Ryan: Art Historian and Author
Friday 8 November, 1pm - 2pm
Part of the Friends of the Crawford Art Gallery Autumn Lecture Series. Admission €5

Micheal Farrell's Modernity
Dr. Fionna Barber: Principal Lecturer for Contextual Studies, Manchester Metropolitan University
Thursday 21 November, 1 pm - 2 pm
Admission Free

Before France: Micheal Farrell
Robert Ballagh, Artist
Wednesday 11 November, 1 pm - 2 pm
Admission Free

For details on guided tours, access and education please go to: https://www.crawfordartgallery.ie/education.html  or email: emmaklemencic@crawfordartgallery.ie

Touring Venues:
Solstice Arts Centre, Meath
22 August - 19 October 2013
Crawford Art Gallery, Cork
9 November 2013 - 4 January 2014
Royal Hibernian Academy, Dublin
16 January - 23 February 2014
Centre Culturel Irlandais, Paris
13 March - 27 April 2014

Cyril Barrett, Micheal Farrell (Douglas Hyde Gallery, Dublin, 1979)

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