Monday 20 November / Thursday 30 November 1922

Monday 20 November 1922

Walter A. Mulligan (1861-1919) Portrait of John O’Mahony (First Curator of Crawford Art Gallery)
Collection: Crawford Art Gallery, Cork [CAG.0525]
Walter A. Mulligan (1861-1919) Portrait of John O’Mahony (First Curator of Crawford Art Gallery)
Collection: Crawford Art Gallery, Cork [CAG.0525]

By the late W.A. Mulligan, A.R.C.A.
DAILY, 11-4:30
From Monday, 20th inst. to Saturday, 25th inclusive.

[source: Irish Examiner p5 Saturday 18 November 1922]


‘An interesting collection of works by the late Mr. W. A. Mulligan (1861-1919). A.R.C.A. [Associate of Royal College of Art, London] is now on view in the Sculpture Gallery of the School of Art. As Headmaster of the School for many years, he achieved distinctions as a teacher and an artist.

Many of his portraits of prominent citizens are well known and reveal a thorough and masterful spirit in painting. In landscape he exhibits the same fidelity to nature as well as conscientious attention to detail. His pictures of the mountainous districts of Cork and Kerry and Pretty Ballyshannon [County Donegal],the home of the poet [William Allingham (1824-1899)], are attractive examples of the picturesque in our own country. Several find rendering of the beauty of North Wales recall a sketching ground favoured by many celebrated artists. A few studies of Continental scenery, still life group, and an important flower study, deserve attention for their unusual excellence.’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Monday 20 November 1922]

* John O’Mahony (d.1910) was the first curator of Cork School of Art and according to Freemans Journal (Monday 14 March 1910) was ‘officially contracted with the Cork School of Art for a period of 57 years, in which capacity he was brought into contact with the citizens and may visitors to the city.’

Thursday 30 November 1922


Cork Bible Society

‘The 115th Annual Meeting will (D.V) [from the Latin deɪəʊ vɒˈlɛntɪ – God Willing] be held in the Central Hall, Academy Street [now Nando’s Restaurant], on this (Thursday) Evening, at 7.30 p.m. Chairman – The Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross. Speakers – Rev. W. E. Hipwell, M.A. (of Pakhoi); Rev William Corrigan.’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 30 November 1922]

Thursday 16 November / Saturday 18 November 1922

Thursday 16 November 1922


‘COHEN – On November 16th, at St. Kevin’s Nursing Home, South Terrace to Mr and Mrs M. Cohen, 19 Academy Street, a son’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 10 November 1922]

Saturday 18 November 1922



[source: Irish Examiner p4 Saturday 18 November 1922]


‘LOST: a roll of songs, initials in corner. Please return to Mathew’s Academy Street. Reward for trouble.’

[source: Evening Echo p6 Saturday 18 November 1922]


Matthew’s has existed on Academy Street since 1904 in a number of locations. Originally a leather merchant the family-run business now sells outdoor clothing and sailing apparel.

Thursday 9 November / Tuesday 31 October 1922

Thursday 9 November 1922


Civic Guard arrive in Cork
[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 10 November 1922]

‘A party of ­­the Civic Guard, numbering about sixty men, arrived in Cork yesterday from Dublin to take up their police duties in the city and the county. They are at present stationed in the School of Music, and their numbers will be strengthened in a day or two by the arrival of a further contingent.

It is intended to send some of the members of this party to Midleton, Youghal, Clonakilty, Bandon, and later on, others will be drafted into the remaining towns of the county. The numbers of the force who arrived yesterday morning, are remaining at the School of Music until their departure for the country districts which will probably take place today. About 20 or 30 are to take up duty in the city, and these in a few days will take over a building in the city.

The arrival of the Civic Guard, it may here be mentioned, is welcomed greatly by the citizens. Our special reporter at Dublin wired last night:- Another contingent of the Civic Guard proceed to Cork by the Lady Carlow [passenger ship owned by the British and Irish Steam Packet Company] this evening.’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 10 November 1922]

Monday 13 November 1922


(From Our Reporter) Dublin. Monday [- Additional claims lodged at Government offices include the following: - M.D. Daly and Sons. Academy Street, Cork, goods seized £5,669;…The Southern Engineering Co., 29 Maylor Street, Cork, £750; Michael Ryan, 36 and 37 MacCurtain Street, Cork, property seized, £600; Eustace and Co., Leitrim Street, Cork do., £500.  

[source: Irish Examiner p4Thursday 10 November 1922]

M.D. Daly and Sons was a distiller and off-licence company based at Academy Street. D.J. Daley was an Honorary Secretary, along with three others including the Lord Mayor of Cork of the Cork Charitable Coal Fund which took subscriptions from a number of individuals and businesses in order to assist the poor during the winter months. The company also subscribed to the membership of the Cork Industrial Development Association which exhibited at the 1922 Cork Summer Show ‘to be held under the auspices of the Munster Agricultural Society’.

[source: Evening Echo p1 Monday 13 November 1922]

Monday 30 October / Tuesday 31 October 1922

Monday 30 October 1922


“At the meeting of the Cork Technical Instruction Committee at eight o’clock last night…the meeting had before it the …summary of Inspector’s report upon the working of the scheme of technical instruction in operation in the County Borough of Cork during the session 1921-1922.

Municipal School of Art: The work of the School of Art was carried on satisfactorily and on sound lines. Much good and valuable teaching was done in the full curriculum of a School of Art, including architecture, drawing from life and anatomy. The work of different classes was discussed with the headmaster on various visits of inspection, and, as a result, improvements in details were affected.

As a new design teacher has taken up work, it may be well to draw attention to the following: - The design and technique of lace and crochet done at the Cork School of Art have been remarkable for excellence for a good many years past; the technique continues to be excellent, but, as regards design, it has been remarked that there have been few new forms devised for some years”.

…The Chairman said that the comments on the School of Art were highly flattering and very praiseworthy. It was gratifying to see such an important branch of instruction was carried out so satisfactorily, and it was most creditable to the Principal (Mr. Charde) and the teachers.”

[source: Irish Examiner p8Tuesday 31 October 1922]


“Today shortly after twelve o’clock noon, there was yet another street bomb attack on troops in Cork, which from a military point of view, was the usual complete failure. The bombs missed their objective entirely and, as again, it was the defenceless civilian population, women and children, that were in danger as a result of the attack and not the National troops.

About a quarter of an hour after 12, a private touring car, containing three or four of the National Army was passing through Patrick Street, towards the Grand Parade, when just as it reached a point near the statue, the attack was made…

Two bombs were of the bombs struck the wooden pavement almost in a line with the Irish Lace House [whilst] the larger bomb hit the iron work of a passing tram car …The passengers in the tram car were very naturally terrified, one of the lady occupants fainting and had to be assisted out of the car…It was a most miraculous circumstance that there had been no fatality or cases of serious injury following upon so atrocious a crime committed in broad daylight, and in one of the principal busy thoroughfares of the city”.

[source: Evening Echo p1Monday 30 October, 1922]

Tuesday 31 October 1922


“The C.C.P. [City of Cork Police*] have been doing good work of late in the matter of apprehending robbers. Last night, James Caniffe, of 6 Emmet Place, was arrested on a charge of having on last Saturday entered the premises of Mr. Nolan, draper, Castle Street, and holding a revolver, stolen a blue nap overcoat. When taken into custody, the overcoat, and a revolver, were found in his possession.”

[source: Evening Echo p1Wednesday 1 November 1922]

“James Caniffe would be ‘returned for trial on the charge of robbery with violence on Wednesday 3 January.”

 [source: Irish Examiner p5  Thursday 4 January 1923]

*Following the signing of the [Anglo-Irish] Treaty in December 1921, there was a serious break-down of law and order in Cork City. Many police barracks had been sacked while others had been handed over to a group known as the Irish Republican Police, who wore an identifying arm-band with the letters I.R.P. They operated from barracks on the North Mall. The Corporation established its own unarmed police force known as the C.C.P. or City of Cork Police. The R.I.C. (Royal Irish Constabulary) were no longer regarded as having any authority but, pending final disbandment, still occupied some barracks. Meanwhile plans were well in train to form a new National police force and by March, 1922 recruits were already in training.

The final evacuation of the Bridewell Police Station [a two minute walk from Crawford Art Gallery along the quays] by the R.I.C. took place on 12 April 1922. An Inspector Riordan from Union Quay and Station-Sergeant McCoy met with I.R.A. officers in Cornmarket Street. An inventory of the station property was made and the building was handed over at 11:30 a.m. A similar operation was then conducted at Tuckey Street and Union Quay barracks. These were the last three R.I.C. barracks in the country to be evacuated.


Thursday 26 October 1922



“The Lectures will be delivered [by Dr Annie Patterson] every alternate Thursday at 4p.m., in the LECTURE THEATRE, SCHOOL OF ART. Attendance at these lectures is compulsory on Students of the School of Music. A limited number of the Public will be admitted at a charge of 1s. [one shilling] each lecture. F.B. Giltinan. Secretary”

[source: Irish Examiner p2Tuesday 24 October 1922]

Image courtesy No2 Mount Upper Street

Image courtesy No2 Mount Upper Street

Dr Annie Wilson Patterson (1868-1934) was a musician, author, composer and music teacher born 27 October 1868 in Lurgan, Co. Armagh. She attended Alexandra College, Dublin, on a scholarship and continued her studies obtaining a degree and a masters degree from the Royal University of Ireland (RUI) which taught Music in today’s National Concert Hall, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin.  Patterson received her doctorate in 1889 becoming the first Irish or British woman to hold a Doctorate of Music and was RUI’s first official Doctor of Music.

In 1897 she co-founded the Feis Ceoil festival in Dublin and was perhaps the first known woman to be involved in the language movement: 'The leading spirit of the Irish Musical Revival' is how the publication Irislháar na Gaedhilge (1 April 1985) describes her. She contributed to the main resolution regarding the revival of the language at a conference held by the Confederation ('Feis') in Cork, 17 April 1895. She published Six original Gaelic songs in 1896.

In 1909, Annie Patterson became the organist at Saint Anne’s Church, Shandon in Cork City prompting her to write a choral piece The bells of Shandon. She was examiner in music at the Cork Municipal School of Music (1914-19) and in 1924 she was appointed corporation Gaelic music lecturer at University College Cork – the costs of the position were paid by Cork Municipality – a position she held until her death on 16 January 1934 at 43 South Mall, Cork.  

Having published ten books including Schumann (1903), How to listen to an orchestra (1913), and The Profession of Music (1926), Patterson also contributed to various journals and gave a series of popular radio broadcasts. Under the name ‘Niamh’, she wrote articles in the Journal of the Ivernian Society. She had three versions of her name in Irish: Eíthne Nic Pheadair, Áine Nic Pheadair, and Áine Nic Ghiolla Pheadair.

Today’s Feis Ceoil offers the Dr Annie Patterson Medal in her honour – a competition in which musicians must play a ‘setting of two Irish airs of contrasting character for voice with Irish harp or Irish harp alone’ 

sources:, and

Saturday 14 October / Wednesday 25 October 2022

Saturday 14 October 1922

“The usual quarterly meeting was held in the School of Art on Saturday….The irregular attendance in the schools was severely commented upon, and after a lengthy discussion the following resolution was unanimously adopted:-

“That we, the Cork City Branch of the I.N.T.O [Irish National Teachers Organisation], request the Minister for Home Affairs to sanction provisionally, with a view to subsequent legislation on similar lines, the Irish Education Act (Compulsory Attendance) as amended by the Cork City Sinn Fein Executive, and worked with such satisfactory results in the Cork City Parliamentary Area during the past school year. That copies of this resolution, accompanied by a copy of the amended Act be sent to the local T.D.’s our General Secretary, and to the Chairman of the Labour Party in the Dail for the purpose of giving expression to the terms of the resolution.”

[source: Irish Examiner p3Tuesday 18 October 1922]

Wednesday 25 October 1922



Dáil Eireann sitting as a Constituent Assembly in this Provisional Parliament, acknowledging that all lawful authority comes from God to the people and in the confidence that the National life an unity of Ireland shall thus be restored, hereby proclaims the establishment of The Irish Free State (otherwise called Saorstát Eireann) and in the exercise of undoubted right, decrees and enacts as follows:-

  1. The Constitution set forth in the First Schedule hereto annexed shall be the Constitution of The Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann).
  2. The said Constitution shall be construed with reference to the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland set forth in the Second Schedule hereto annexed (hereinafter referred to as “the Scheduled Treaty”) which are hereby given the force of law, and it any provision of the said Constitution or of any amendment thereof or of any law made thereunder is in any respect repugnant to any of the provisions of the Scheduled Treaty, it shall, to the extent only of such repugnancy, be absolutely void and inoperative and the Parliament and the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) shall respectively pass such further legislation and do all such other things as may be necessary to implement the Scheduled Treaty.
  3. This Act may be cited for all purposes as the Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) Act, 1922.

For further details on the Articles of the Act:

Friday 29 September 1922 / Monday 9 October 1922

Friday 29 September 1922


‘[Before the Hon. the Recorder, K.C.] … In the claim of Messrs. Punch and Co., Academy Street were allowed £316 for the partial destruction of their motor lorry which was commandeered by armed men on July 12th, and was recovered at Cobh barrack on August 11th. Its value when it was found was about £20, and it cost £376. The engine had been dismantled and smashed with a hammer, the front wheels and seven tyres were missing, and other damage was caused.’

[source: Irish Examiner p3 Saturday 30 September 1922]

Monday 9 October 1922


Choral Classes Newspaper cutting


‘Mr. A. F. Sharman Crawford (Chairman) presided Present- Rev. Bro. Walker: Messrs. M.J. O’Riordan, T.C: B.M. Egan. T.C.: J.T. Keating. B.A.; J.J. O’Connor; J. Fitzpatrick, T.C.; George Nason; J. Conlon, M.A.; J. Cashman.

A deputation was appointed to wait on the military authorities to request the vacation of the School of Music.’

[source: Evening Echo Tuesday 10 October 1922]

20 / 22 September

Friday 20 September


“Last night Moore’s Hotel, Cork [Morrison’s Quay] was attacked from three directions, bombs and a machine-gun being used by the irregulars. Almost simultaneously bombs were hurled into the yard at Catfort [between Nano Nagle Place and Elizabeth Fort], while there was some sniping at Emmet Place, and also it is stated, in the vicinity of Sullivan’s Quay.

None of the troops were hit, but some civilians were wounded, none very seriously. One girl, however, Miss Kathleen Curtin, of St. Finbarr Street, was wounded just above the ankles, near her home, and she is at present detained in the Mercy Hospital. She also has a slight wound in the shoulder-blade.”

[source: Evening Echo p1, Saturday 21 September 1922]

Friday 22 September



“Last night, about quarter past nine o’clock, a bomb was thrown at Messrs. Johnson and Perrott’s garage, Emmet Place, where several attacks have previously been made. The missile exploded, wounding four of the soldiers [Pro-Treaty], none, however, seriously, while one girl was also injured.

A second bomb was also thrown, and an outburst of firing followed. The troops replied, but the attackers made their escape under the cover of darkness.

Of the four soldiers, who were removed to the Mercy Hospital subsequently, one was injured in the feet in four places, by bomb splinters, but not seriously. Another had a shrapnel wound in the heel, rather serious, as is a third who was hit in the thigh. The fourth, injured in the foot and hand, was not detained.

The girl was Miss Delia O’Brien, aged about 17, of 5 Emmet Place [today above Costa Coffee] and she, too is not badly injured. Another girl named Morrisey, from Cornmarket Street, is said to have been slightly injured. Later there was some firing in the South Mall area, but no casualties are reported.” [source:

Evening Echo p1, Saturday 23 September 1922]

14 / 16 September

Thursday 14 September



“In Cork, about nine last night a machine-gun was fired at National troops at Emmet Place, but there were no casualties. An hour later an attempt to snipe soldiers in Bridge Street [across the bridge from Patrick Street] caused the death of a sailor and the wounding of a girl. At half-past ten a bomb was thrown at National troops at the Gregg Hall, South Mall but without results”.  [source: Irish Examiner p.3, Friday 15 September 1922]

The sailor who lost his life was Edward Williams aged 18 from 15 Burley Street Liverpool who was serving on the Cork Steam Packet Company’s S.S. Kenmare as a wireless watcher was shot dead on the corner of Bridge Street Cork. Williams had left the ship with another young man, John William Cave of 8 Howe Street Liverpool, on Thursday night, as they were talking to some girls at the corner of Bridge Street a man emerged from a Public House and fire on Williams with a revolver. The Captain of the S.S. Kenmare stated that Williams had only joined the ship on Tuesday and this was his first trip to Cork. 

[sources: Cork Examiner Saturday 16 September and Freeman’s Journal Monday 18 September 1922]

Saturday 16 September


“On next Monday, the 18th of Sept., the Cork Municipal School of Music will re-open in the School of Art, Emmet Place. As may be seen from our advertisement column, the staff is now a highly efficient and complete one both as regards Gaelic and classical music. …Perhaps more important and more significant of the new musical life in our city is the fact that in spite of the difficult times, six musical recitals were given in Cork during the last session by the pupils and professors of the School, including a Beethoven and Chopin evening.

Being a municipal school, one would naturally expect that the best musical talent of the city would be attracted and fostered there, and, as a matter of fact, this municipal institution is to be congratulated on practically achieving the expected ideal for the coming session”.

The tradition of Cork School of Music recitals in the building of Crawford Art Gallery continues with the monthly ‘Music at Midday’ held the first Sunday of every month.

[source: Evening Echo p3 Saturday 16 September 1922]

4 / 9 / 13 September

Monday 4 September


A meeting of the committee, together with section holders and stewards, was held last evening at the School of Art, Mr. W.F. O’Connor (chairman) presiding.  The meeting proceeded to complete the arrangements for Wednesday’s outing. The organiser (Mr. Dorrington) detailed full instructions to the section holders and stewards.

It was stated there were over 6,000 tickets distributed to the children. The number of sections provided for is 90, each section comprising 72 children.  The first train on tomorrow (Wednesday) morning will leave the Glanmire terminus at 8.45, the succeeding trains following at short intervals.  The committee requests the appointed section holders and stewards to be at the station as early as possible.

[source: Irish Examiner p.6, Tuesday 5 September 1922]

Saturday 9 September

First Term Commences at Crawford Municipal School of Art

[source: Irish Examiner, Saturday 9 September 1922]

Wednesday 13 September

Free Studentships

An Examination will be held at the SCHOOL OF ART on SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16th, at 12 o’clock, for the purpose of awarding Thirty Free Studentships to Pupils at present attending any of the Primary Schools in the City of Cork.

Successful Candidates can attend the Evening Classes at the School of Art to the end of June next, and their Free Studentships may be continued for a second or third year if their attendance has been 70 per cent of the possible number.

Candidates are confined to those who are placed in the 6th Standard Class. Pupil Teachers in receipts of Salary are not allowed to complete.

F.B. GILTINAN, Secretary

[source: Irish Examiner, Wednesday 13 September 1922]

25 / 30 August

Friday 25 August 1922

National Teachers, [source Irish Examiner, Friday 25 August 1922]

[source Irish Examiner, Friday 25 August 1922]

Wednesday 30 August 1922


Edward Isherwood, motor-driver aged 22, single, was taken from his residence, 56 Watercourse road, Blackpool, by an armed and masked party in the early hours of yesterday morning. He was shot by them and left for dead in a field some miles away. He escaped however, and is at present detained in the Mercy Hospital Cork.  Before shooting him, the armed party affixed a card to his breast bearing the words: “Convicted spy. I.R.A. Beware”. Isherwood frequently drove cars for the National forces.

[…] Isherwood was a member of the British Military Transport, from which he was disbanded five months ago. Since then he has been employed as motor driver at Messrs. Johnson and Perrott Ltd., and he has frequently driven cars for the National Army. He was through two ambushes within the past ten days or so, one near Macroom a week ago, and the other at Rathcormac. During the latter encounter he had a very narrow escape, the man sitting next to him being wounded.

[source: Irish Examiner, Wednesday 30 August 1922]

19 / 23 August

Saturday 19 August 1922

[source Irish Examiner, Saturday 19 August 1922]

[source Irish Examiner, Saturday 19 August 1922]

Wednesday 23 August 1922

Death of Michael Collins newspaper clipping.

“…Councillor [Barry] Egan moved that the deepest sympathy and condolence of the Corporation be tendered to the relatives of General Collins in their great bereavement, and that the meeting should also be adjourned as a mark of respect to his memory. It was right and fitting that such a tribute of sympathy, respect and honour should be paid to the memory of the great Irishman who was murdered on the previous night [Tuesday 22 August 1922].

The country had never suffered such a great loss at it did recently by the deaths of President Griffith and General Collins who were two great Irish patriots (hear, hear). The task those two great Irishmen left unfinished remained to be carried on by the people, and it was the duty of the people to work unflinchingly, like President Griffith and General Collins, to reach the goal that they strove to secure (hear, hear). Law and order, must be firmly established in the country (hear, hear). No matter what terrorism was used to defeat thew ill of the people it must be once and for all determined that the will of the people should prevail in the country (hear, hear).”

[source: Evening Echo, Thursday 24 August 1922]

Barry Egan (1879-1954) was a formidable member of Cork political and business sectors. He was Deputy Lord Mayor of Cork upon the death of Terence MacSwiney and was elected to Dáil Éireann in 1927 for the Cork Borough constituency. Egan was managing director of the family silversmith company, William Egan & Sons when the Patrick Street shop was burned during the Burning of Cork in November 1920 during the War of Independence. He was also a member of the Cork School of Art’s Gibson Bequest Committee.

For more information on Barry Egan (1879-1954) click here

“The fallout from [Arthur] Griffith’s death was nothing compared to the impact of the killing of Michael Collins on 22 August at an ambush at Béal na Blá in his native west Cork, from a bullet fired by an IRA member. He had been touring Cork to liaise with his political and military networks and perhaps to persuade some of his opponents on to another path, or else because of deception about talk of possible peace. His death inevitably created an intensification of the war and also led William T. Cosgrave (1880-1965) assuming the position of chairman of the provisional government. […] The anti-Treaty side’s response to Collins’s death was mixed; some were vexed by the purple prose of the eulogies, but for many soldiers and politicians ‘this was also a very private kind of loss’.” [source: Diarmaid Ferriter, Between Two Hells: The Irish Civil War, (Profile Books 2021) p57]

Wednesday 16 August


“The flags of all ships in Cork port are flying at half-mast in respect to the late Mr. Arthur Griffith (died suddenly Saturday 12 August 1922). Such exceptional tribute testifies to the nation’s loss. Over public buildings in Cork city similar tokens of sorrow are manifested.”

[source: Irish Examiner, Wednesday 16 August 1922]


At the special meeting of the Council of the Cork Corporation yesterday, the following resolution was passed: -

“That we, the Municipal Council of Cork, desire to place on record an expression of our deep sense of regret at the death of Mr. Arthur Griffith, President of Dáil Éireann, who was one of Ireland’s most gifted and illustrious sons, a brilliant statesman, and a true and unswerving patriot; that we deplore his loss as a grave national calamity at this juncture in the history of our distressed and distracted country; that copies of this resolution be forwarded under the Corporate Seal to his bereaved widow……Further we express regret that it is not possible to send a deputation to attend the funeral.”

[source: Irish Examiner, Wednesday 16 August 1922]

Arthur Griffiths (1871-1922) was a journalist, Irish nationalist and principal founder of Sinn Féin, acting president of Dáil Éireann (1919-1920) and its president from 10 January 1922 until his death. Click here for more information on Arthur Griffith’s life.

11 July / 7 August / 11 August / 12 August 1922

Tuesday 11 July


…The minutes for the Art Sub-Committee were adopted as follows – (a) That the tender of Messrs Guy and Co. of £3.7s6d for 100 additional copies of prospectus be accepted; (b) that the salary of Mr. John Power, second master, be increased from £200 to £250 per annum; (c) that the salary of Mr T. J. O’Leary be increased from £55 to £105 per annum.

Monday 7 August

Opera House Newspaper clipping

A very hearty greeting awaited Mr. William Macready at the Cork Opera House yesterday, when he presented to his fellow citizens for the first time the play with the above-named title. The clever and popular Cork actor could hardly have selected a play better calculated to prove the worth of himself and his company….On the conclusion of the second act of the play Mr. Macready came before the curtain and, having thanked the audience in graceful terms for their very cordial reception of his self and company, asked their indulgence for the lady playing the little Charteris girl and the gentleman playing “Danello,” because there were playing the parts at short notice.

Mr. Macready explained that owing to a lying report in one of the London papers that Cork was isolated, food short, and life unsafe the persons engaged to play the parts mentioned had declined to join him and had returned their parts.

[source: Irish Examiner, Tuesday 8 August 1922]

Friday 11 August

Anti-Treaty forces lose possession of Fermoy, Co. Cork (35 km north-east of Cork City) as the last town they held in County Cork, its capture precipitated a move back to guerrilla tactics for the IRA.

Saturday 12 August

Incidents in Cork Newspaper clipping

Between six and seven o’clock last evening there was great excitement around MacCurtain St., Bridge St., and Patrick’s hill.

About 6:30 a detached few of the National troops were fired on at the end of Summerhill (north)…At once the attempt at sniping was opened, the National troops placed themselves in positions, and returned the fire…The volley of shots had the effect of holding up all pedestrian traffic, and crowds were soon together at the west side of St. Patrick’s Bridge street, MacCurtain street. The tram services about passing to Blackpool, Summerhill and Tivoli were suspended for a time.

30 June / 1 July/ 6 July / 7 July 1922

30 June

‘The final struggle for the building was terrific. It began on Thursday night with a terrific bombardment by the attackers, and when breaches had been made, the effort to storm the building was made. It is stated about 200 Free State troops took part. When part of the main building was being stormed there was a fearful explosion, which resulted in a heavy casualty list. …After the explosion mentioned, there was a temporary truce, and twenty doctors arrived to attend to the wounded. Then the fight was renewed. The Four Courts went on fire, but three hours later the Irregulars [Anti-Treaty IRA] hoisted the white flag, and firing ceased. Throughout areas in the City of Dublin snipping and fighting continues.’

(Source image and text: Cork County Eagle & Munster Advertiser, Sunday 1 July 1922)

1 July

Letter to the Editor
Cork Reconstruction

‘Sir, - …the cultural area may be developed at Emmet’s Place by acquiring the block on the south side, adjoining the river. Here the Technical School and Free Library could be erected adjacent to the School of Art and Theatre. Beautiful buildings look their best on a river side, and the approach to the centre of the city from the north would be considerably enhanced in appearance.

In matters of this kind, finance governs everything; but whether the acquisition of the sites suggested would be more costly than a main drainage scheme, and bridging 400 yards of the south branch of the river, is a matter for experts to consider, - Yours truly, “REFLECTOR”

(source: Evening Echo, Saturday 1 July 1922)

7 July

FOR sale an electric lift complete, second-hand, in perfect working order; also an 80 gallon iron pan boiler. Apply Chas. McCarthy and Sons, engineers, Emmet Place, Cork.     8942

(source: Evening Echo Friday 7 July 1922)

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24 June 1922

(image: Evening Echo, Saturday 24 June 1922)
(image: Evening Echo, Saturday 24 June 1922)
Why change  your wife? advert

Click on the image above to view the film on YouTube

Elections to the Third Dáil

Labour’s Gigantic Triumph

At the time of writing the results or the elections are not quite complete. The feature of the election was not so much the defeat of some anti-treaty candidates as the overwhelming success of the labour nominees. At the moment but one out of eighteen labour men has been defeated and he by only a short head by Mr. McGrath, who used up all the surpluses of his panel colleagues to scrape in.

Some fifteen anti-treaty deputies have been defeated up to the time of writing and some more are apparent jeopardy. Four of the six lady deputies have been defeated, including Mrs. Pearse, the mother of Padráic Pearse, evidence of short public memory…

Cork East and North East
J. Dineen (Farmers’ Party), David Ceannt (Anti-Treaty Party), M. J. Hennessey (Ind.) were elected. T. Hunter and S. Fitzgerald (Anti-Treaty) were defeated.

Cork North, South, West, South East and Middle – Result not yet available. The candidates for eight seats represented four pro-treaty, including Michael Collins and four anti-treaty, including Sean Moylan and Sean MacSwiney, two Labour and one Farmer.

(source: Meath Chronicle, Saturday 24 June 1922

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22 June 1922

Sir Henry Wilson Shot Dead

Lamentable Tragedy

‘Sir Henry Wilson, Chief Military Adviser to the Belfast Government was shot dead at his London residence yesterday. Mr. Griffiths has rightly stated that the vast majority of the Irish people, despite the fact that they differed from Sir Henry Wilson’s political opinions, will be unanimous in condemning and deploring the tragedy. We cannot pretend to know what motive was behind the horrifying deed, but it is obvious, from the various public references, that it is attributed to the bitterness aroused by Partition and the Belfast Pogrom. …If, as is suggested, this was in the nature of a “reprisal,” it can do no good. It is in every way a deplorable and unchristian act, and may produce infinite harm. Certainly, it will tend to inflame passion and intensify existing troubles instead of modifying a difficult situation’

(source Editorial, Irish Independent, Friday 23 June 1922)

John Day, Field Marshel Sir Henry Wilson (c. 1921) Collection Crawford Art Gallery, Cork

John Day, Field Marshel Sir Henry Wilson (c. 1921) Collection Crawford Art Gallery, Cork

British cabinet ministers assumed [the murder of Sir Henry Wilson] was the work of IRA hardliners in the Four Courts, and ordered the British government to capture the building on 25 June. At the last moment the British Government made a final appeal to the Provisional Government to clear the militants out of the Four Courts in Dublin.

Facing sustained IRA opposition to their governing authority and the probable British reoccupation of the country, Free State ministers saw no alternative to military action. They authorised a National Army assault on the Four Courts to begin on the night of 27 June 1922. Knowing of the split in republican ranks, the leaders hoped fighting would be brief and confined to Dublin. However, both moderate and militant IRA officers considered the shelling of the Four Courts a declaration of war against the Irish Republic.

(Source: John Borgonovo, ‘IRA Conventions’ p674, Atlas of the Irish Revolution, Cork University Press, 2017)

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5/15 June 1922

5 June

Marriage O’Neill-Donovan

On June 5th, 1922, at SS. Peter and Paul’s Church, Cork (with Nuptial Mass), by Rev. P. MacSwiney, B.A., Augustine, third son of the late James O’Neill, Academy Street, to Mary (Molly) third daughter of the late John Donovan, of Dunmanway.

(source: Evening Echo, Saturday 17 June 1922)

15 June

How to revive the Irish Language in Schools

A meeting was held in the School of Art, Cork, the Chairman (Mr. T. Jones) delivered the following address: ‘You have all seen the reports of the Teachers’ Congress and how the Irish language is to be revived; but how can this be done, when less than 70 per cent of the scholars [pupils] only attend school, and when those who do attend finish at such an early age.

Successful efforts have been made in many parishes to improve school attendance, but the revival of the national language is surely worthy of a big national effort towards compulsory attendance at school.

Again, there must be no doubt about the equipment of schools; there must be books, charts and maps and the schools must be heated, cleaned, furnished and maintained on a basis – at least equal to those under the various Technical Committees.  

The medical inspection of school children would prevent the schools being closed often in epidemics of sickness; closings are not at all so general where there is systematic medical inspection to secure timely attention and isolation…’

(source: Evening Echo, Friday 16 June 1922)

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9/18/23/24 May 1922

Shortage of Potatoes

‘The rapid rise in the price of potatoes is a matter of concern to every householder. It is quite true that the crop last season was below the average, but the shortage resulting from that cause could not account for the alarming advance of prices in Dublin and in the markets of the North during the past week.

The shortage, which has been felt in England, France, and other countries, has caused a rise in prices in Ireland, and the tempting prices offered for potatoes to be exported to these countries are in a great measure responsible for the higher prices and the smaller supplies for the home market.

The interference with transit facilities and with the normal flow of trade between the South and North must also have had a serious effect…With the alarming neglect of tillage resulting from the present unsettled conditions in the country it looks as if strong measure would also be needed to avert even more serious shortage of root crops during the coming winter.

(source: Irish Independent, Tuesday 9 May 1922)

18 May

At UCD (University College Dublin), an electoral pact committed both Sinn Fein sides to running pro- and anti- Treaty candidates on a joint ticket and to establishing a coalition government after the election. The pact depended on Collins' promise to deliver a new constitution that would accommodate republicanism, presumably by relaxing the Free State's imperial connections. That possibility appalled the British cabinet, which soon suspended arms shipments to the National Army and halted the British army's evacuation of Ireland.

23 May

Northern Ireland government declare republican organisations illegal following the killing of unionise MP William Twaddell (22 May 1922). 

24 May

To the Editor,

Dear Sir, - Permit me, through the columns of your paper to sincerely thanks the I.R.P [Irish Republican Police*] for the successful efforts they made in tracing and recovering my new “Ford” car, stolen from outside Messrs. Johnson and Perrott’s garage [Emmet Place previously Nelson Place) on the 25th April last. The I.R.P. were able to hand back the car to me this evening. Yours faithfully, M. Darlington, 2 Victoria Terrace St. Lukes

(source: Evening Echo, 24 May 1922)

*The Irish Republican Police was established by Richard Mulcahy, then Chief of Staff of the IRA in April 1920, and was to have been set up in every IRA Brigade area. Its primary functions were to support Dáil Éireann and the Dáil Courts, and as such were part of the system to undermine British authority in Ireland.

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1-2 May 1922

1 May

Last evening the Fire Brigade were called to an outbreak in a tenement house in Academy Street, and on arrival found that the room on the highest floor in the building was alight. The flames were however extinguished before much damage had been done.

(source Evening Echo,2 May 1922)

2 May

The Library in Crawford Art Gallery, which accommodated the Cork (Free) Library between 1892-1905. The Gallery also facilitated monthly meetings of the Carnegie Free Library Committee following the Burning of Cork (1920). Photo: Jed Niezgoda.

The Library in Crawford Art Gallery, which accommodated the Cork (Free) Library between 1892-1905. The Gallery also facilitated monthly meetings of the Carnegie Free Library Committee following the Burning of Cork (1920). Photo: Jed Niezgoda.

Carnegie Free Library*

The monthly meeting of the above was held yesterday afternoon at the School of Art…Replying to questions, the Librarian, Mr. Wilkinson, stated that nothing of a conclusive nature had been reached in connection with suggested sites for temporary library premises…The Chairman mentioned that it was at the suggestion of the Lord Mayor and Councillor Good that a meeting was called for the purpose of coming to some decision regarding the position in which the Committee stood concerning the library building.

It was decided that the Chairman should urge on the [Cork] Corporation the great need for providing temporary premises for the library before next winter, seeing the large number of readers who used the library and who had no other place in which to read.

*The original Cork (Free) Public Library opened in December 1892 at Nelson Place (later renamed Emmet Place) within the Crawford Municipal School of Science and Art (now Crawford Art Gallery). The newsroom was the first part to be opened with the ground floor facility allowing visitors to read a variety of Irish and English newspapers and magazines. In July 1893[MW1] , books became available for borrowing from the first floor lending library. The Cork (Free) Public Library operated in the building until 1905 when the Carnegie Library was opened on Anglesea Street. Subsequently completely destroyed in the Burning of Cork (1920), the Library was still yet to find a temporary building until June 1924.

(source: Irish Examiner, 5 May 1922; Cork: A Library Burned – A Library Reborn, Cork City Council Libraries, 2020)

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22 April 1922

An appeal to Cork

During the week Mr. Daniel Corkery referred in the Press to one of the pictures in the R.H.A. Exhibition at Dublin (“Men of the South” by John [Seán] Keating), and suggested that an effort be made by the [Cork] Corporation and County Council of Cork to secure this “monument to the boys”. “Better’, he says “they cannot erect at six times the price, and it is only £250”. I fear his is a vain appeal, £250 for a picture is not a proposition likely to be accepted at the present juncture, when purse strings are being pulled tighter by the public bodies and a needy population is clamouring for work and bread. But the note struck by Mr. Corkery should – and I hope will – find a responsive echo among us.

True, there are too many calls on private benefactors, and there is much “feeling” which tends to discourage spontaneous public support of Art; but a certain amount of municipal pride yet remains, and could, I am sure, be sufficiently enlisted to secure this historical monument for the Southern capital – its natural home. Should our public bodies fail to respond, an appeal to private citizens and social centres may bring forth the means for preserving to future Cork generations this memorial of a time that will long be spoken of with pride in the streets of our city and the homes of our people.

(source Macalla, “Echoes of the Week”, Evening Echo, 22 April 1922)

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14/19 April 1922

Friday 14 April

 Irregular Troops Take Possession of the Four Courts Dublin  

‘A few minutes after midnight on Thursday night, between three and four hundred irregular troops took possession of the Four Courts, Dublin. They also occupied the Four Courts Hotel adjoining, which will be utilised for the commissariat.  

‘Commandant Rory O'Connor said the occupation had been carried out on account of lack of accommodation for his troops, and not because a coup d’etat was contemplated. He knew of no suggested revolution.  

‘Commandant O’Connor was asked by the special correspondent of the Press Association if there were any possible grounds on which an arrangement for preserving peace could be made. His answer was that Mr. [Arthur] Griffith and Mr. [Michael] Collins would have to give an undertaking, and see that it was carried out, that the Provisional Government would not function. He added that the only means he could see of averting civil war was the scrapping of the Treaty’.  

(Source: Irish Examiner, Saturday 15 April 1922)  

Serious Floods in Cork 

‘Considerable damage to private property and the public roadways was caused by the floods in Cork on Friday night. Some time after 7 o’clock the river had filled to such an extent that water bubbled up through the sewers. Between 8.30 and 9 o’clock all the central positions were impassable, there being water to a depth of over 2 feet in Patrick Street, Oliver Plunkett St., the South Mall and intersecting thoroughfares. The western area, Blackpool and other low-lying districts also suffered. Apart from injury to property in shops and private houses, into which the flood found its way, large portions of the surface of the roadway and the central street were torn up…..whilst other were “marooned” in tramcars, which were forced to cease running.’ 

(Source: Irish Independent, Monday 17 April 1922) 

19 April 1922  

The Munster Agricultural Society admits County Pupils to exhibit at Cork Summer Show 

‘Professor O’Donoghue and the County Secretary re the proposal to exhibit the work of the county pupils in the Cork Summer Show. The Munster Agricultural Society have decided to add to the exhibits and entertainments, at the forthcoming Summer Show, certain sections which will bring the society into closer relationship with the national outlook of today, and at the same time enable them to place the society on a sound financial footing. In these new sections, the Irish Industrial Development Association, Irish Products League, Gaelic League, G.A.A., Chamber of Commerce, School of Art etc, will be actively represented...the Cork School of Art will supply exhibits to an arts and crafts section. 

‘The County Committee are asked to co-operate with the City Committee, [Technical Instruction Committees] in making the last-mentioned section a success. Exhibits of pupils’ work in lace and ask them to offer prizes for farriery [i.e. Blacksmiths], with a view to encouraging the support of this important craft. 

(Source: Minutes from Cork Technical, Meeting of County Cork Committee, Evening Echo, Wednesday 19 April 1922)  

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14 March 1922

The Infirmary Flag Day 

Following the Burning of Cork (11-12 December 1920) with the razing of Cork City Hall and the Carnegie Library, Cork School of Art (now Crawford Art Gallery) increasingly became a centre of civic meetings for a number of organisations where its large lecture theatre could provide space for up to one hundred people.  

‘A meeting, having for its object a flag day in aid of the South Infirmary, was held at the School of Art, Emmet Place, yesterday evening…The Chairman (Mr. J. C. MacNamara), in thanking those present for their attendance, said that an appeal on behalf of charity was never made in vain to the people of Cork, and no more charitable object existed than the maintaining and support of a public hospital.  

The South Infirmary, after its charitable work extending over a century and a half, was today heavily in debt despite the generosity of many friends, and the Joint Committee of Management of the Hospital had decided that recourse should be a flag day appeal. A special work of thanks was due to the ladies for attending, as it was always on the ladies the greater onus of flag-day management devolved.  

Dr. Hannon, speaking said …”Considering the number of patients who can pay nothing, and the number who can pay but very little towards defraying their expenses, the Hospital authorities must either make a public appeal for support of limit the Hospital work, and they have decided, as the Chairman has said, to hold a flag day”’ 

(Source: Evening Echo, Wednesday 15 March 1922)  

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6 / 12 March 1922

6 March 1922

Technical Instruction Committee re-elect Mr Sharman Crawford

'Mr French moved the re-election of Mr. Sharman Crawford as Vice Chairman for the ensuing twelve months. It was not necessary to say any of the nice things that Mr. Crawford was deserving of; these things had been said so often that he refrained from doing so that day. No man deserved to be honoured by that committee than Mr. Crawford for he had rendered unselfish services to technical education...

On the motion of Mr. [George] Nason, [President of Cork Trades and Labour Council] and seconded by Mr. [George] Duncan, it was agreed that in future the first meeting of each month should be held in the School of Art at 4 o'clock and the second meeting in the Technical Institute at 8 o'clock…

On the motion of Mr. [Sean] French, seconded by Mr. [Barry] Egan. permission was granted the Town Planning Association to hold their meetings in the School of Art.’

(Extracts from ‘Technical Instruction Cork City Committee’ Irish Examiner 7 March 1922)

12 March 1922

Mr Collins at the Opera House, Cork 

Monster Treaty Demonstration

(Image courtesy Evening Echo, advert 8 March 1922)

Michael Collins and his party ‘subsequently attend a concert at the Opera House. The function however excited some opposition. The concert was timed for 8:15, and shortly after a number of men rushed the house. They divided into three parties, and entering the balcony and circles and the pit and stalls, they threw red pepper over the theatre.  

‘The effect disturbed the whole audience. The party in the gallery sang the “Boys of the First Cork Brigade” and “The Soldiers Song” and cheered for de Valera. 

‘When Mr Collins and his party entered at 9 o’clock they were loudly cheered, the party in the gallery continued demonstrating. Ultimately Mr. P. O’Keefe addressed the audience and matters quietened down. About a quarter of an hour later two shots were fired in the gallery. Two further items of the programme were gone through when a lady apologised for the curtailment of the programme, and said she was sure they would understand the reason. The curtain went down. The audience left the theatre.’ 

(Source: Freemans Journal, Monday 13 March 1922)  

Practical Appeal for Irish Soldiers

On behalf of the Irish Republican Soldiers (1916-1921) and the Prisoners of War Association the following statement has been issued from the Mansion House, Dublin:-

“The war in Ireland is now happily ended. It has, however, left in its trail many cases of destitution and numerous disabled and partially disabled soldiers of the Republic who took a noble part in the fight of freedom, and many who lost their health and means of livelihood by being in prison and internment camp during the period of 1916-21.

“An association has been formed to embrace all these and others who will assist in promoting its objects, which are briefly – the securing of employment for all unemployed, the reinstatement of those victimised, and financial aid for these disabled, partially disabled, and destitute members.

Branches of the association are being immediately formed in each parish area, and all the persons affected, together with those willing to assist, should be enrolled, the latter paying a subscription of one shilling per month, and proper unemployed registers prepared. It is proposed that the branches …will deal with all simple local cases that present no great difficulty, and that the larger questions of the disabled and partially disabled members, those incapacitated by reason of imprisonment and internment, and also victimised national and local public servants, will remain to be dealt with by the National Executive on report from the local committee, properly supported by statements from the responsible I.R.A. officers and local medical officers where such is needed’.

(source:  Sunday Independent, 12 March 1922)

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