SYMPOSIUM: Perpetrator Trauma and the Irish Civil War

Saturday 27 January 2024 10am – 1pm

Dominic Thorpe Untitled 2023 © the artist

Dominic Thorpe Untitled 2023 © the artist

Perpetrator trauma can be experienced by individuals and groups struggling to comprehend and process violence they have been directly or indirectly responsible for. This symposium brings together contributors from the arts and academia to examine what can often be unacknowledged or unspoken experiences of perpetrator trauma. In doing so it will also explore a fuller account of the personal and societal impacts of violence and the place of perpetrators in memory and commemoration. Presentations may be of particular interest to those in the arts, civil war, conflict, memory, atrocity and trauma studies.

The symposium coincides with Dark Dark Mouth, a body of performance, drawing and installation work by Dominic Thorpe exploring perpetrator trauma and the Irish Civil War in Cork city. Dark Dark Mouth is one of six project awards commissioned as part of Building as Witness, a programme that focuses on the site of Crawford Art Gallery which was witness to fascinating histories of local, national, and international importance surrounding the Irish Civil War period.

Dominic Thorpe Untitled 2023 © the artist

Dominic Thorpe Untitled 2023 © the artist

Dr. Síobhra Aiken joined the Department of Irish and Celtic Studies at Queens University in 2021. She holds a BA in European Studies from Trinity College, an MA in Irish Studies from the National University of Ireland, Galway, and a Postgraduate Diploma in Irish-language Translation and Editing from Maynooth University. She graduated with a PhD in 2020 from the Centre for Irish Studies, National University of Ireland, Galway. Her doctoral dissertation was awarded the Adele Dalsimer Prize in 2021. Her research interests include: modernist Irishlanguage poetry; twentieth-century Irish-language literature; the Gaelic Revival in the United States; ‘trauma’ and emigration during the Irish Revolution (1916–23); fictionalised testimony by veterans of the Irish Revolution; comparative studies of the Irish and Spanish Civil Wars; the poetry of Máirtín Ó Direáin and Máire Mhac an tSaoi. Her first monograph, Spiritual Wounds: Trauma, Testimony and the Irish Civil War, was published in April 2022 by Irish Academic Press, awarded the Michael J. Durkan Prize for Books in Language and Culture 2022 and the Whitfield prize from the Royal Historical Society 2023.

Dr. Cara Levey (MA University of London, PHD University of Leeds) is Senior Lecturer in Latin America Studies at University College Cork. Her work focuses on the politics of memory in and beyond the Southern Cone. She is the author of Fragile Memory, Shifting Impunity: Commemoration and Contestation in Post-dictatorship Argentina and Uruguay (Peter Lang, 2016), a study that goes beyond architectural readings of memorials to explore the underlying debates and controversies of memory-making in the aftermath of state terrorism. She has also undertaken research on the role of perpetrators in memory and justice processes and is a member of the Perpetrator Studies Network. Her current work considers the manifold ways in which the past is treated and “worked through” virtually and spatially by second-generation Southern Cone exiles in Europe and has been published in Bulletin of Latin American Research and in Bulletin of Spanish Studies and Clepsidra.

Dr. Dominic Thorpe is an Irish visual artist who works through performance art, video, photography, drawing, installation, collaborative and relational based processes. He has shown and performed extensively in Ireland and internationally including at the Tasmanian Museum and Gallery, Bangkok Cultural Centre, Ulster Museum Belfast and Galway Arts Centre. Much of his work addresses contemporary and historical violence, human rights and institutional abuses. In recent years his focus has expanded to include an exploration of individual and collective perpetrator trauma and in 2022 he received a PhD at Ulster University for research on Performance Art from Ireland and Perpetrator Trauma. He has completed several residencies, including at the Nordic Arts Centre, Fire Station Artist Studios and was the first artist-in-residence in Humanities at University College Dublin. In 2022 Thorpe was awarded the Bolay Residency at the Linenhall Arts Centre Castlebar and in 2023 was awarded the inaugural Crespo Foundation Residency at Uillinn: The West Cork Arts Centre. He has work in several public collections, including the collection of the Arts Council of Ireland.
Peadar King is an Irish documentary filmmaker and writer. For Irish television, he has presented, produced and occasionally directed the award-winning global affairs series What in the World? Hailed by The Irish Times as “terrific and moving, illuminating and insightful…King’s contribution to our understanding of global economic inequality has been impressive”. The series has filmed in over fifty countries across Africa, Asia and The Americas, providing a compelling critique of the current predatory model of neoliberalism. In recent years, it has turned attention to the way in which war has engulfed the lives of millions of people across the globe. Specifically, King has reported on conflict in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Palestine/Israel, Somalis, South Sudan and Western Sahara. His reporting has also extended to the war on drugs (Mexico, Uruguay) and on war on people of colour (Brazil and the United States of America). King is the author of three books: The Politics of Drugs from production to consumption (2003), What in the World? Political Travels in Africa, Asia and The Americas (2013) and War, Suffering and the Struggle for Human Rights. Among those who have acknowledged King’s work are Noam Chomsky “this remarkable travelogue, inquiry and illuminating analysis".

Dominic Thorpe Untitled 2023 © the artist

Dominic Thorpe Untitled 2023 © the artist


15 - 28 January

Upper Gallery

Dark Dark Mouth is a body of performance, drawing, and installation work by Dominic Thorpe, which addresses perpetrator trauma and the Irish Civil War (1922-23) in Cork.  

Perpetrator trauma is an often under-explored aspect of conflict. It can be experienced by individuals and groups struggling to comprehend and process violence for which they have been directly or indirectly responsible.  

Thorpe takes various instances of Irish Civil War killings in Cork City as his starting point. Dark Dark Mouth gives expression to the perpetrator trauma that can mark and seep into individual, collective, and generational experiences in the aftermath of violence. His installation speculates if perpetrator trauma could have surfaced within the work of students attending Crawford Municipal School of Art – then located in this building – during and after the Civil War period.  

This exhibition is accompanied by a performance and symposium:  

Dominic Thorpe is an Irish visual artist who works through performance art, video, photography, drawing, installation, collaborative and relational based processes. Much of his work addresses contemporary and historical violence, human rights, and institutional abuses. In recent years, his focus has expanded to include an exploration of individual and collective perpetrator trauma and, in 2022, he received a PhD at Ulster University for research on Performance Art from Ireland and Perpetrator Trauma. 

This is one of six project awards commissioned as part of BUILDING AS WITNESS and supported by the Department of Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media under the Decade of Centenaries Programme 2012 - 2023. 

Dominic Thorpe Research, 2023 © the artist

Dominic Thorpe Research, 2023 © the artist

Monday 30 April 1923


Accounts and minutes for April 1923 indicate that William Sheehan, Gibson Bequest Scholar, received remittance of £20 on 30 April 1923 to cover the four-week period until the following 29 May. Sheehan, best known for his painting, The Consultation (1917), had embarked upon his scholarship to Madrid earlier that year.

[source: Gibson Bequest Minutes (1921-40) VEC 06 76]

18 April 1923

On the night of 18 April 1923, armed men entered the home of Frank J. Pitt* and, attempting to burn it down, ‘soaked the house and furniture in petrol.’ Fortunately, only the contents burned.

It is likely that this was an action of the Anti-Treaty IRA, possibly in retaliation for Pitt holding a National Army (or Pro-Treaty) charity boxing tournament the previous month, and the reliance on British performers and programmes presented at Cork Opera House in the previous years.

*Frank J. Pitt (1877-1938) was an actor and impresario from Acton Beauchamp, Herefordshire. From 1912 until 1938, he was the manager and secretary of Cork Opera House. A member of the Grafton Club, situated at 11 Emmet Place (currently Starbucks), he lived at 1 Victoria Avenue in 1921 with his wife, Margaret Davies (d.1928), and their daughter, Kathleen Elizabeth (b.1917). He returned to England in 1938, the year of his death.

6 / 7 April 1923

Friday 6 April 1923

There was another very full house at the theatre last evening, and the operas both went with a better swing than ever, and there were frequent encores. As there remain only three more performances, those who have not up to the present seen this admirable show ought not lose this rare opportunity.



This clever variety company will be the strong attraction at the Opera House next week. The company returns with nearly all the old favourites and with certain additions to the strength of the company. The newcomers include Haydee Royston, a dancer with Continental experience; Chas. Henry, one of the most versatile and popular of London entertainers, and Doris Pickford, a young soprano, who is also a dancer. The programme presented will be an enlivening blend of vocalism, dancing, and sketch, and promises to be most attractive. The performance will be at 6.40 and 8.45.

(source: Cork Examiner, 6 April 1923, page 4, 8)

Saturday 7 April 1923


7th Apr, 1923 (D Corkery, Chair) Principal to ‘submit a scheme’ for the proposed lectures. £3-8 for timber for carving. Joseph Higgins appointed adjudicator. Mr Flanagin (Lecturer on Architecture) asked to stay on for ‘remainder of the current session’.

(source: Minutes of Municipal Technical Instruction Sub-Committees, 1922-1927)

Tuesday 3 April 1923



‘Everyone and anyone who goes to the Opera House this week may go on the certainty of a most enjoyable performance, completely meritorious ...

Both operas were produced under the direct personal supervision of Mr. Allan Morris, of the principal D’Oyly Carte Opera Company**, whose good offices as “coach” resulted in such all-round efficiency ...

There was a good house for the matinee, and last evening the theatre was crowded. Such an excellent performance cannot fail to attract crowded houses for the week.

The very onerous duties of the hon. Secretaryship are performed most satisfactorily by Mr. Jack McCabe, and Mr. Jack A. Moore as stage manager has no light job.’

[source: The Cork Examiner, 3 April 1923, p.6]

*Trial by Jury (1875) and H.M.S. Pinafore (1878) are popular comic operas with music by Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900) and libretto by W.S. Gilbert (1836-1911). Both productions were frequently revived, toured, and recorded.

**The D’Oyly Carte Opera Company was a professional light opera company which staged Gilbert & Sullivan productions from the 1870s until 1982.

14 / 15 / 17 March 1923

Wednesday 14 March 1923

Cork School of Commerce
Tonight's Lecture
‘The lecture by Mr. A. Weldon A.I.S.A., Lecturer in Commerce, announced for this (Wednesday) night at the School of Commerce, will not be delivered there, but at the School of Art at the same hour, 8:15.

The change has been found necessary owing to the large number who have applied for admission

[source: The Cork Examiner p3, 14 March 1923]

New Fire Appliance for Cork
‘At the cost of roughly fourteen hundred pounds, a first-class modern motor fire-engine and motor pump combination, manufactured by the Leyland Company has been acquired by Cork Fire Brigade…The weight of the combination, loaded, is four tons. Fitted with a forty horse power engine, the car can travel at a high speed, the maximum probably exceeding forty miles an hour. The pumping capacity is guaranteed to be, at least, between three and four hundred gallons per minute…This new fire engine and pump combined is a very desirable acquisition to the resources of the Fire Brigade.’

[source: The Cork Examiner p3, 15 March 1923]

Thursday 15 March 1923

Irish Week

Support Irish Industries

‘The display of Irish manufactured goods in the shops of Cork which is being made this week – Irish Week – has proved to a great extent a surprise to the general public. It has demonstrated beyond doubt that almost every article required in the country, whether in the household or the farm, is being manufactured at home, and with an increase of sentiment amongst the purchasing public as regards home production, that the few things missing could also be turned out in our own factories. In this respect it may be no harm to revert to the question of the import of goods into Cork, many of which better quality could be obtained here…The total value of goods imported from England annually being £132,000,000 - as much as could keep half a million Irishmen constantly employed if manufactured here. This does not reflect much credit on the sentiment of the people of Munster, but now under the new and sympathetic Government of the Irish people themselves a strong impetus should be given to local manufacture.’

[source: The Cork Examiner p7, 15 March 1923]

Cork Water Supply – Another Burst
‘A large area in the centre of the city was without water for a considerable time yesterday owing to the bursting of a pipe at Paul Street. Repairs were quickly commenced, however, and completed in a few hours.’

[source: The Cork Examiner p4, 16 March 1923]

Saturday 17 March 1923

School of Music Concert
‘The choral concert of the students of the Cork Municipal School of Music took place last evening in the Opera House, a very full house being attracted by the event. The concert was most enjoyable, a very full house being attracted by the event. The concert was most enjoyable, displaying musical resources of the finest kind. The choral singing was particularly good. A detailed notice of the event will appear in tomorrow’s issue.’

[source: The Cork Examiner p4, 18 March 1923]

2 / 5 / 7 March 1923

Friday 2 March 1923

Armed Men Remove Two York Typewriters
‘Armed men removed two York Typewriters from the Technical Institute’ [now the site of MTU Crawford College of Art & Design]. These were valued­ at £15 each and the thieves were probably Anti-Treaty IRA working on behalf of their publicity and propaganda department which operated out of Muskerry, west Cork.

Monday 5 March 1923

Art in Ireland lecture by Dermod O’Brien

Art in Ireland Clipping

‘“Irish Art and Its Possibilities” was the subject of an interesting lecture delivered at 16 Dawson Street last night to the National Literary Society by Mr. Dermod O’Brien [recently appointed Expert Advisor to Gibson Bequest Committee]. Having given an erudite review of the historical aspect of his theme, the lecturer dealt with the present time and queried what chances were there for the production of native art.

“We have suitably equipped schools” he proceeded, “in Dublin, Belfast, Derry, Cork, Limerick, and Galway for students who desire to take up almost any form of graphic or plastic art, including design, and we have many schools of music. Moreover, the Irish student seems to have a natural aptitude and quickness, but there is no patronage for them, and those who wish to make even a modest living from the exercise of their art find that they have to take their wares to other countries.”

Having traced the causes of the migration of the landowner classes, upon which art depended, for the most part for patronage Mr. O’Brien continued: “Unlike the wealthy merchants of Italy during the Renaissance, or those of England and Scotland in present days, our merchants would appear to have no appreciation of the fine arts, or at all events no desire to acquire them; nor do they give their support to the furtherance of musical, theatrical or literary effort...”

…They must realise that the means by which they could get the arts to the people were primarily through the Church, and secondly, through the factories, and some might say, through the [City and County] Corporations’…

[source: Freemans Journal p4, 6 March 1923]

Wednesday 7 March 1923

Cork Fever Hospital Flag Day Meeting
‘A meeting of the Ladies’ Flag Day Committee was held [at Cork School of Art]…Father O’Regan said it reminded him of old times to see so many ladies present, and all showing a continuance of their earnestness in their faces. …This was only a preliminary meeting, and no doubt they saw that Saturday 21st April, had been fixed for their flag day. In the year 1919 they had made £796 on their flag day collection. In 1920 they made £659. These large figures could only be attained by the energetic work done by the ladies…

Sir John Scott [High Sherriff of City of Cork (1920-26) and a Trustee and Honorary Secretary of Cork Fever Hospital] said it might be no harm to remind the ladies that the hospital debt reported that day by the treasurer was £2,232 which was a very heavy burden on the Committee. They had treated a great many cases of diphtheria and helped to prevent it from spreading in the city.’

[source: The Cork Examiner p10, Thursday Morning, 8 March 1923]

Saturday 10 March 1923

Grand Boxing Tournament at Opera House

Boxing Match clipping

[source: image © Irish Examiner p4, Friday 9 March 1923]

13 / 19 February 1923

Tuesday 13 February 1923

Fire Extinguishers Purchased
Three ‘Erin’ brand fire extinguishers to be purchased for Cork Municipal School of Art at £3/7/6 each. (Perhaps the Irish Civil War and the garrisoning of the Cork Municipal Technical Institution seems to have made the School of Art more conscious of the danger of fire).

[source: IE/Cork City and County Archives/627/U156]

Monday 19 February 1923

Cork Opera House Tender for Bar Supplies

Cork Opera House Bar Tender

‘The Second Term commences on Monday 5th February, and continues until June. Classes in Drawing, Shading, Painting from Casts, Common Objects and from Life. Designing for various purposes.

Woodcarving, Modelling, Enamelling and Metal Work, Painting and Decorating, Embroidery, Lace Making, Crochet, Leather Work etc.

For full Prospectus apply at the School.

F.B. Giltinan Secretary.

[source: The Cork Examiner p4,3 February 1923)

3 / 5 / 8 February 1923

Saturday 3 February 1923

Fancy Dress Carnival
‘It is a pleasure to note that in spite of prevailing conditions, social life in our midst is not altogether neglected as instanced by a very successful fancy dress carnival held in the Cork School of Art on Saturday evening last.

If the influence of an art training is not felt on such occasions, if it fails to stimulate a sense of the beautiful in matters that affect our daily lives, then that training is deficient. The first duty of a School of Art is to cater for this application to industry, but that is not the end. If its teaching does not influence the taste of its pupils in their homes and lead to a healthy expressive life, which is so essential to our well-being, that teaching is defective.

The aesthetics of dress is of great importance, not only to the individual, but to the community, and the result of art training should show itself in that direction.

To judge by the display of beautiful and tasteful costumes as seen at this carnival, one must admit that the School is have its effect. Good selection was everywhere apparent, not only in the wealth and harmony of the colour schemes, but also in the beauty and arrangement of line.

To select or draw distinctions as to the merits of the various dresses would be very difficult, indeed, so many of them displayed such originality and aesthetic sense, so much so that the judges whose duty it was to award prizes, had a difficult task to perform. The comic element was not neglected, and many of the impersonations were decidedly clever. The social was confined to the students of the School, who are to be congratulated on the success of the event.

[source: The Cork Examiner p3,Saturday 10 February 1923]

Gibson Bequest Meeting – William Sheehan
‘A medical certificate was submitted on behalf of Mr William Sheehan showing that he was unable to avail of the travelling scholarship awarded him at present.’

[source: Gibson Bequest Meeting Minutes Saturday 3 February 1923]

Monday 5 February 1923

Second Term commences at Crawford Municipal School of Art

New term at school of art clipping

‘The Second Term commences on Monday 5th February, and continues until June. Classes in Drawing, Shading, Painting from Casts, Common Objects and from Life. Designing for various purposes.

Woodcarving, Modelling, Enamelling and Metal Work, Painting and Decorating, Embroidery, Lace Making, Crochet, Leather Work etc.

For full Prospectus apply at the School.

F.B. Giltinan Secretary.

[source: The Cork Examiner p4,3 February 1923)

Thursday 8 February 1923

Offer of Amnesty

Offer of amnesty clipping

‘1. Bearing in mind the acceptance by Liam Deasy* of an immediate and unconditional surrender of all Arms and Ammunition, and knowing that the reason dictating to him, that acceptance must weigh also with many leaders and many of the rank and file who have found themselves led step by step into a destruction that they never intended, but which has been the result of the line of policy adopted by those to whom they looked for leadership.

2. Notice is hereby given that with a view to facilitating such a surrender, the Government are prepared to offer Amnesty to all persons now in arms against the Government, who, on or before Sunday 18 February, 1923, surrender with arms to any officer of the National Forces or through any intermediary.

Risteard Ua Maolchatha
Commander in Chief’

[source: The CorkExaminer p10,10 February 1923)

*Liam Deasy (1896-1974) was born in Bandon, County Cork. Deasy had opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty and tried to- amongst others -persuade Michael Collins to renegotiate the treaty, especially to remove an oath to the British king from the constitution of the new Irish Free State.

Deasy had been in command of Anti-Treaty IRA fighters in August 1922 when his men prepared an ambush for Michael Collins’ convoy at Béal na Bláth (35 km west of Cork City). Although Deasy had not taken part he later wrote in his memoirs that he profoundly regretted the death of his former Commander. Deasy’s capture on 18 January 1923 by Free State forces at Tincurry near Clonmel, County Tipperary was significant for his role as Deputy Chief of Staff of the IRA at the time of his arrest. He signed a document ordering the men under his command to surrender themselves, convinced that further bloodshed was futile and for this he was spared execution.

14 / 19 / 23 January 1923

Sunday 14 January 1923

Schubert Song Recital
‘A Schubert Song Recital under the auspices of the Cork Municipal School of Music, was given last Sunday afternoon in the School of Art. It was an exceptionally interesting performance. The brief lecture which preceded gave a review of the brief, struggling life and rich creations of the great lyrical composer…Mrs Stockley sang her songs with great finish and exquisite style… All the accompaniments were played by Frau. T. Fleischmann in her usual faultless style. Altogether it was a first-class recital, a rare artistic treat for those who are interested in music in Cork.

[source: Irish Examiner p7, 16 January 1923)

Friday 19 January 1923


‘Mr. Denis McGrath, manager of the Cork Examiner, was shot and seriously wounded about 7 o’clock last evening, as he was entering his private house at Blackrock Road, Cork.

Mr. McGrath took a tram home from the Examiner office and had entered the gate of house when four men rushed forward and fired three shots. Two took effect. One bullet struck him on the right arm above the elbow and inflicted a compound fracture. A second penetrated the back over the kidneys.  The assailants ran off.

Mr. McGrath was able to walk into his residence, and Doctors Dudon and Shanahan were summoned. These arrived very promptly, and Mr. McGrath was conveyed to the South Infirmary, where an operation was performed, which is reported as successful. Other operations will be performed this morning. Mr. McGrath was reported late last night to be getting on as well as could be expected.’

[source: Freemans Journal p5 Saturday 20 January 1923]

Tuesday 23 January 1923

Printing press dismantled by Government forces
Robert Lankford (Cork Municipal Technical Institution) now printing at the Lee Press sees his machinery ‘dismantled officially by Government forces’.

(source IE/Cork City and County Archives/627/U156)

2 / 8 / 9 January 1923

Tuesday 2 January 1923

‘A special meeting of the Law and Finance Committee was held yesterday to consider the general conditions governing the competitions for designs for the Municipal Buildings [Cork City Hall]. The competition is limited to architects living and practising in Ireland. Mr. Lucius O’Callaghan F.R.I.A.I, is appointed by the [Cork] Corporation to act as assessor. The prize for the best design is £500, second £200 and third £100.

In the general conditions approved at yesterday’s meeting, it is provided that the Assembly Hall should, if possible, be on the ground floor, with a seating accommodation for 1,400 persons…Provision is also made for a platform for concerts, lectures, etc., to accommodate 150 persons, space for organ, retiring rooms, etc…It is desired that Irish materials shall be used as far as possible.

…Answering questions, the City Engineer said that in the plans it was sought to give extra accommodation for such as the rate-collectors, analyst, etc., with a special suite of rooms for the Lord Mayor, suitable accommodation for caretaker, and better accommodation for the several staffs….He was certain that the competition would be very keen and invite the best architects in Ireland.’

[source: Irish Examiner p8, 2 January 1923)

Monday 8 January 1923

Crawford newspaper clipping

‘The Undermentioned Schools will resume Work on Monday January 8th:-

Crawford Municipal Technical Institute
Crawford Municipal School of Art
Cork Municipal School of Commerce
Cork Municipal School of Music

Students are requested to return punctually. F.B. Giltinan, Secretary’

[source: Irish Examiner p4, 6 January 1923)

Tuesday 9 January 1923

Technical Instruction Cork Borough Committee – Declining Student Attendance

‘The Principal, Technical Institute said that up to Xmas two classes had fallen off in numbers, viz., Materia Medica [known today as pharmacology]– 5 students with an average of 4 students, and Building Construction, which was in a very serious position, because there was only one student in the first-year class.

… the Principal said that an attendance of 30 to 40 in the Building Construction was anticipated. That was, of course, when the building trade was normal at the present time. The experience was that when employment was bad students would not come along.  The Committee decided to suspend the first year Building Construction Class, and deferred action on the Materia Medica Class.

…The Principal, School of Art, reported that the Day Crocket Class had seven students registered, with an average attendance of about four. The explanation given by the teacher was that in her opinion the fee, twice that of the Lace Class, was too high. In the Celtic Drawing Class at night, the average attendance was five. These matters were referred to the School of Art Sub-Committee.’

[source: Irish Examiner p3, 9 January 1923)

Wednesday 16 December 1922

Student William Sheehan first recipient of Gibson Bequest Travel Scholarship

Gibson Bequest Minutes
Saturday 16th December 1922
Mr J.J. O’Connor in the Chair
Present:  Councillor Eilis, `Messrs. Daniel Corkery, AF Sharman Crawford.

2. Notwithstanding the Committee’s previous decision to send William Sheehan [1894-1923] to Paris on the scholarship awarded the question of the suitability of this venue was reopened and after further consideration it was decided, for important reasons, to send him to Madrid instead. This was proposed by the Deputy Lord Mayor (Councillor Ellis) and seconded by Mr. Crawford

3. The meeting then considered the question of the monetary allowance to be made to Sheehan and on the motion of Mr. O’Connor it was decided:

4. The Secretary stated that in order to meet these expenses it would be necessary to make him advance payment from the Gibson Fund as the Committee’s paying order would hardly be accepted in Madrid.

5. It was agreed that this be done.

6. Mr Sheehan was then called before the meeting and advised by the Chairman and members as to his activities while in Madrid and of the hopes they entertained of his career if he made good use of the opportunity which was being afforded him.

7. The Chairman read a letter from Mr. George Atkinson, Principal, Metropolitan School of Art, Dublin, dated 14th instant, stating that he was securing a number of introductions for Sheehan to people in Madrid who can be relied on to put him in touch with painters and studios there.

8. The Committee had under consideration a further letter from Mr. Atkinson under date 1st December with reference to the securing of expert advice for the Committee on the matter of purchases of works of art and he suggested therein the following as expert consultants:

  1. The President of the Hibernian Academy
  2. The Director of the National Gallery of Ireland
  3. The Head Master of the Metropolitan School of Art

Mr Atkinson further stated that he suggested the office rather than the individual for the sake of continuity, and that these three might form the nucleus of a panel to act with others to be appointed by the Committee.

9. The Committee not being in accord with Mr Atkinson’s idea that the experts should be appointed more in consideration of their offices than of their individualities, decided to enlist the services of:

Mr Dermod O’Brien, President, Hibernian Academy
Mr. Langton Douglas, Director of the National Gallery
Mr. Geo. Atkinson, Head Master, Metropolitan School of Art

10. The Chairman then undertook to draft regulations governing the procedure to be observed relative to the purchase of works of art and to submit same for the approval of the Committee.

William Sheehan
The Consultation, 1917
oil on canvas, 69 x 80 cm
CAG.295 Collection Crawford Art Gallery, Cork

The image above depicts the interior of the artist William Sheehan's family home at Great William O'Brien Street (Blackpool, Cork), his blending of two models – both his sister and the actress Caroline O'Connor – in the tense female figure suggests a less specific, more open meaning to the painting.

Among the numerous interpretations of this work, however, is that the withdrawn male figure imparts news of the death of O'Connor's two brothers, both of whom were killed in the First World War in 1917. The painting, therefore, may represent the impact of war on the home and on those anxiously awaiting the next letter. Sheehan's use of mirrors and still life serves to enhance the suspension of feeling in this moment, while the chair reflected in the background suggests emptiness or loss.

Portrait of a Lady (c.1917), also by Sheehan and in Crawford Art Gallery’s collection, can be seen reflected in the mirror.

Saturday 9 December 1922

Cork Municipal School of Commerce Assistant Caretaker Position

‘The Joint Committee invite applications for the post of Assistant Caretaker, at a salary of £52 per annum and cost of living bonus. Age limit 17-20.

Applications will be received by the undersigned at his office, Sharman Crawford Street, Cork, up to Saturday 16th December; they should be accompanied with copies of two recent testimonials.  Canvassing directly or indirectly will be regarded as a disqualification.

Further Particulars on application.

F.B. Giltinan, Secretary, 7th December 1922

[source: The Cork Examiner p3, 9 December 1922)

Crochet Classes and Important Painting at Cork School of Art

Minutes from the Technical Instruction Cork Borough Committee:

Due to the circumstances of the Irish Civil War many classes including Building Construction saw the number of enrolled students drop dramatically. Such was the decrease in Building Construction (usually between 30 to 40 students per annum) that the Committee decided to suspend the first year of the class.

‘The Principal, School of Art, reported that the Day Crochet Class had seven students registered, with an average attendance of about 4. The explanation given by the teacher was that in her opinion the fee, twice that of the Lace Drawing Class at night, the average attendance was 5. These matters were referred to the School of Art Sub-Committee’.

[source: The Cork Examiner p3, 9 December 1922)

Wednesday 6 December 1922

Irish Free State is Founded

‘The Irish Free State came into existence yesterday [6 December 1922], all the constitutional requirements having been complied with, and the Senate appointed in the prescribed manner.

The national independence of Ireland is now an accomplished fact, and in the natural gratification that must result from such a triumph after the prolonged struggle that preceded it, sight must not be lost of the fact that the responsibility for the country’s future rests henceforth with the Irish people themselves…

…Despite the protestations of those who would decry the Free State before it is afforded the opportunity to avail of its legislative, executive and financial powers, the fact remains that Ireland is jubilant at the freedom that has been won, and is determined to utilise it to the fullest for the advantage of the nation’.

[source: The Cork Examiner p4, 7 December 1922]

Ireland Free State Postage Stamps Issued

Irish 2d stamp
Irish Five Shilling Stamp

Coinciding with the Irish Free State coming into existence, the first Irish stamp design was issued on 6 December 1922 (above left), which also commemorated the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty a year earlier.

Prior to Irish independence and a for a period afterwards – British stamps illustrated with British monarchs (above right) were still used but over printed with the text “Saorstát Éireann 1922” to indicate an independent Irish postal system.

[source: 2 December 1922, Gibson Bequest Committee Minutes, Cork VEC Holdings, Cork City and County Archives]

Miss Kay Feehely Killed in Anti-Treaty IRA Bomb on St Patrick’s Street

Miss Kay Feehely Killed Newspaper clipping

(Image: The Cork Examiner p3, 22 December 1922)

‘A bomb thrown in Patrick’s St., Cork, last evening [Thursday 6 December 1922] near the entrance to SS. Peter and Paul’s Church, created consternation. Several civilians were wounded. At 3.15 [pm] a private motor car, in which two officers, a driver, and a private, was driving down Patrick’s Street from Grand Parade end, and when opposite Lipton’s a bomb was thrown.

The bomb missed the motor car but struck the side of the footpath underneath’s Lipton’s window…Splinters and shrapnel were scattered around…A woman, who was transacting business at the inside end of Lipton’s shop was struck on the throat, and sustained serious injuries’.

(source: Irish Independent p7, 8 December 1922)

‘Kathleen Feehely died of her wounds on 20 December at the Mercy Hospital, the daughter of Charley and Mary Feehely, 19 Bachelors Quay to the inexpressible grief of her sorrowing parents, brothers, sister and a large circle of friends….Funeral at 3 o’clock tomorrow [Friday 22 December 1922] for St. Joseph’s Cemetery. Immaculate Heart of Mary pray for her.’

(source: Births – Marriages – Deaths, Evening Echo p6, 21 December 1922)

Saturday 2 December 1922

James Archer to engrave Gibson Collection Case

‘The Chairman submitted draft inscription for tablet of Gibson Collection Case and it was approved in the following form:-

“In this case are exhibited Souvenirs and valuables of Joseph Stafford Gibson a member of an old Cork family, who born at Kilmurry in the County of Cork on 9 October 1837 spent the greater part of his life in Madrid where he died on 3rd February 1919 bequeathing these souvenirs and an invested sum of £14,790 to this school for the furthering of Art in the City of his boyhood.”

‘It was ordered that the engraving of inscription be entrusted to Mr James Archer’.

Detail of Gibson Collection Case engraving by James Archer (1866-1945). Photo © Michael Waldron.

Detail of Gibson Collection Case engraving by James Archer (1866-1945). Photo © Michael Waldron.

[source: 2 December 1922, Gibson Bequest Committee Minutes, Cork VEC Holdings, Cork City and County Archives]

Student William Sheehan is considered to be the first recipient of Gibson Bequest Travelling Scholarship

‘The Committee further considered the question of awarding William Sheehan [1894-1923], a student at the School of Art, a Travelling Scholarship, under the terms of the [Gibson] Bequest and the Chairman requested that he had interviewed Mr [George] Atkinson*, Principal, Metropolitan School of Art, Dublin as to Sheehan’s capabilities and the best art centre to which the Committee should send him if they so decide and he (Chairman) read a letter from by Atkinson favouring an itinerary. Mr Atkinson had also stated that he considered Sheehan the most talented young man in Ireland with the exception of [Séan] Keating.

[source: 2 December 1922, Gibson Bequest Committee Minutes, Cork VEC Holdings, Cork City and County Archives]

*George Atkinson (1880-1941) was a printmaker, painter and designer. Born in Cork, he was inspired to become an artist by reading about fellow Cork artist James Barry (1741-1806). He trained at Crawford School of Art and subsequently won a scholarship to the National Art Training School at South Kensington (now Royal College of Art, London) before returning to Ireland where he taught at the Metropolitan School of Art (later National College of Art and Design, Dublin) becoming Headmaster and then Director (1918-1941).

He was the designer for the cenotaph erected in Dublin in 1923 to the memory of Arthur Griffin and Michael Collins, a temporary structure on Leinster Lawn subsequently dismantled. In 1924, the scroll bearing the 64 signatures of the members of the first Irish Senate was prepared by Atkinson for inclusion in the casket presented by Senator Alice Stopford Green.

Between 1925 and 1929, he had been responsible for a series of studies etched during the Shannon Hydro-Electric Scheme Excavations at Ardnacrusha, Co. Clare.

George Atkinson, Shannon Scheme: The Excavations, c. 1929. Collection Crawford Art Gallery, Cork

George Atkinson, Shannon Scheme: The Excavations, c. 1929. Collection Crawford Art Gallery, Cork

In the 1920’s and 1930’s George Atkinson played a prominent part on the Gibson Bequest Committee to purchase works for the Cork School of Art later to become Crawford Municipal Art Gallery (now Crawford Art Gallery).

Monday 20 November / Thursday 30 November 1922

Monday 20 November 1922

Walter A. Mulligan (1861-1919) Portrait of John O’Mahony (First Curator of Crawford Art Gallery)
Collection: Crawford Art Gallery, Cork [CAG.0525]
Walter A. Mulligan (1861-1919) Portrait of John O’Mahony (First Curator of Crawford Art Gallery)
Collection: Crawford Art Gallery, Cork [CAG.0525]

By the late W.A. Mulligan, A.R.C.A.
DAILY, 11-4:30
From Monday, 20th inst. to Saturday, 25th inclusive.

[source: Irish Examiner p5 Saturday 18 November 1922]


‘An interesting collection of works by the late Mr. W. A. Mulligan (1861-1919). A.R.C.A. [Associate of Royal College of Art, London] is now on view in the Sculpture Gallery of the School of Art. As Headmaster of the School for many years, he achieved distinctions as a teacher and an artist.

Many of his portraits of prominent citizens are well known and reveal a thorough and masterful spirit in painting. In landscape he exhibits the same fidelity to nature as well as conscientious attention to detail. His pictures of the mountainous districts of Cork and Kerry and Pretty Ballyshannon [County Donegal],the home of the poet [William Allingham (1824-1899)], are attractive examples of the picturesque in our own country. Several find rendering of the beauty of North Wales recall a sketching ground favoured by many celebrated artists. A few studies of Continental scenery, still life group, and an important flower study, deserve attention for their unusual excellence.’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Monday 20 November 1922]

* John O’Mahony (d.1910) was the first curator of Cork School of Art and according to Freemans Journal (Monday 14 March 1910) was ‘officially contracted with the Cork School of Art for a period of 57 years, in which capacity he was brought into contact with the citizens and may visitors to the city.’

Thursday 30 November 1922


Cork Bible Society

‘The 115th Annual Meeting will (D.V) [from the Latin deɪəʊ vɒˈlɛntɪ – God Willing] be held in the Central Hall, Academy Street [now Nando’s Restaurant], on this (Thursday) Evening, at 7.30 p.m. Chairman – The Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross. Speakers – Rev. W. E. Hipwell, M.A. (of Pakhoi); Rev William Corrigan.’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 30 November 1922]

Thursday 16 November / Saturday 18 November 1922

Thursday 16 November 1922


‘COHEN – On November 16th, at St. Kevin’s Nursing Home, South Terrace to Mr and Mrs M. Cohen, 19 Academy Street, a son’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 10 November 1922]

Saturday 18 November 1922



[source: Irish Examiner p4 Saturday 18 November 1922]


‘LOST: a roll of songs, initials in corner. Please return to Mathew’s Academy Street. Reward for trouble.’

[source: Evening Echo p6 Saturday 18 November 1922]


Matthew’s has existed on Academy Street since 1904 in a number of locations. Originally a leather merchant the family-run business now sells outdoor clothing and sailing apparel.

Thursday 9 November / Tuesday 31 October 1922

Thursday 9 November 1922


Civic Guard arrive in Cork
[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 10 November 1922]

‘A party of ­­the Civic Guard, numbering about sixty men, arrived in Cork yesterday from Dublin to take up their police duties in the city and the county. They are at present stationed in the School of Music, and their numbers will be strengthened in a day or two by the arrival of a further contingent.

It is intended to send some of the members of this party to Midleton, Youghal, Clonakilty, Bandon, and later on, others will be drafted into the remaining towns of the county. The numbers of the force who arrived yesterday morning, are remaining at the School of Music until their departure for the country districts which will probably take place today. About 20 or 30 are to take up duty in the city, and these in a few days will take over a building in the city.

The arrival of the Civic Guard, it may here be mentioned, is welcomed greatly by the citizens. Our special reporter at Dublin wired last night:- Another contingent of the Civic Guard proceed to Cork by the Lady Carlow [passenger ship owned by the British and Irish Steam Packet Company] this evening.’

[source: Irish Examiner p4 Thursday 10 November 1922]

Monday 13 November 1922


(From Our Reporter) Dublin. Monday [- Additional claims lodged at Government offices include the following: - M.D. Daly and Sons. Academy Street, Cork, goods seized £5,669;…The Southern Engineering Co., 29 Maylor Street, Cork, £750; Michael Ryan, 36 and 37 MacCurtain Street, Cork, property seized, £600; Eustace and Co., Leitrim Street, Cork do., £500.  

[source: Irish Examiner p4Thursday 10 November 1922]

M.D. Daly and Sons was a distiller and off-licence company based at Academy Street. D.J. Daley was an Honorary Secretary, along with three others including the Lord Mayor of Cork of the Cork Charitable Coal Fund which took subscriptions from a number of individuals and businesses in order to assist the poor during the winter months. The company also subscribed to the membership of the Cork Industrial Development Association which exhibited at the 1922 Cork Summer Show ‘to be held under the auspices of the Munster Agricultural Society’.

[source: Evening Echo p1 Monday 13 November 1922]

Monday 30 October / Tuesday 31 October 1922

Monday 30 October 1922


“At the meeting of the Cork Technical Instruction Committee at eight o’clock last night…the meeting had before it the …summary of Inspector’s report upon the working of the scheme of technical instruction in operation in the County Borough of Cork during the session 1921-1922.

Municipal School of Art: The work of the School of Art was carried on satisfactorily and on sound lines. Much good and valuable teaching was done in the full curriculum of a School of Art, including architecture, drawing from life and anatomy. The work of different classes was discussed with the headmaster on various visits of inspection, and, as a result, improvements in details were affected.

As a new design teacher has taken up work, it may be well to draw attention to the following: - The design and technique of lace and crochet done at the Cork School of Art have been remarkable for excellence for a good many years past; the technique continues to be excellent, but, as regards design, it has been remarked that there have been few new forms devised for some years”.

…The Chairman said that the comments on the School of Art were highly flattering and very praiseworthy. It was gratifying to see such an important branch of instruction was carried out so satisfactorily, and it was most creditable to the Principal (Mr. Charde) and the teachers.”

[source: Irish Examiner p8Tuesday 31 October 1922]


“Today shortly after twelve o’clock noon, there was yet another street bomb attack on troops in Cork, which from a military point of view, was the usual complete failure. The bombs missed their objective entirely and, as again, it was the defenceless civilian population, women and children, that were in danger as a result of the attack and not the National troops.

About a quarter of an hour after 12, a private touring car, containing three or four of the National Army was passing through Patrick Street, towards the Grand Parade, when just as it reached a point near the statue, the attack was made…

Two bombs were of the bombs struck the wooden pavement almost in a line with the Irish Lace House [whilst] the larger bomb hit the iron work of a passing tram car …The passengers in the tram car were very naturally terrified, one of the lady occupants fainting and had to be assisted out of the car…It was a most miraculous circumstance that there had been no fatality or cases of serious injury following upon so atrocious a crime committed in broad daylight, and in one of the principal busy thoroughfares of the city”.

[source: Evening Echo p1Monday 30 October, 1922]

Tuesday 31 October 1922


“The C.C.P. [City of Cork Police*] have been doing good work of late in the matter of apprehending robbers. Last night, James Caniffe, of 6 Emmet Place, was arrested on a charge of having on last Saturday entered the premises of Mr. Nolan, draper, Castle Street, and holding a revolver, stolen a blue nap overcoat. When taken into custody, the overcoat, and a revolver, were found in his possession.”

[source: Evening Echo p1Wednesday 1 November 1922]

“James Caniffe would be ‘returned for trial on the charge of robbery with violence on Wednesday 3 January.”

 [source: Irish Examiner p5  Thursday 4 January 1923]

*Following the signing of the [Anglo-Irish] Treaty in December 1921, there was a serious break-down of law and order in Cork City. Many police barracks had been sacked while others had been handed over to a group known as the Irish Republican Police, who wore an identifying arm-band with the letters I.R.P. They operated from barracks on the North Mall. The Corporation established its own unarmed police force known as the C.C.P. or City of Cork Police. The R.I.C. (Royal Irish Constabulary) were no longer regarded as having any authority but, pending final disbandment, still occupied some barracks. Meanwhile plans were well in train to form a new National police force and by March, 1922 recruits were already in training.

The final evacuation of the Bridewell Police Station [a two minute walk from Crawford Art Gallery along the quays] by the R.I.C. took place on 12 April 1922. An Inspector Riordan from Union Quay and Station-Sergeant McCoy met with I.R.A. officers in Cornmarket Street. An inventory of the station property was made and the building was handed over at 11:30 a.m. A similar operation was then conducted at Tuckey Street and Union Quay barracks. These were the last three R.I.C. barracks in the country to be evacuated.


Thursday 26 October 1922



“The Lectures will be delivered [by Dr Annie Patterson] every alternate Thursday at 4p.m., in the LECTURE THEATRE, SCHOOL OF ART. Attendance at these lectures is compulsory on Students of the School of Music. A limited number of the Public will be admitted at a charge of 1s. [one shilling] each lecture. F.B. Giltinan. Secretary”

[source: Irish Examiner p2Tuesday 24 October 1922]

Image courtesy No2 Mount Upper Street

Image courtesy No2 Mount Upper Street

Dr Annie Wilson Patterson (1868-1934) was a musician, author, composer and music teacher born 27 October 1868 in Lurgan, Co. Armagh. She attended Alexandra College, Dublin, on a scholarship and continued her studies obtaining a degree and a masters degree from the Royal University of Ireland (RUI) which taught Music in today’s National Concert Hall, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin.  Patterson received her doctorate in 1889 becoming the first Irish or British woman to hold a Doctorate of Music and was RUI’s first official Doctor of Music.

In 1897 she co-founded the Feis Ceoil festival in Dublin and was perhaps the first known woman to be involved in the language movement: 'The leading spirit of the Irish Musical Revival' is how the publication Irislháar na Gaedhilge (1 April 1985) describes her. She contributed to the main resolution regarding the revival of the language at a conference held by the Confederation ('Feis') in Cork, 17 April 1895. She published Six original Gaelic songs in 1896.

In 1909, Annie Patterson became the organist at Saint Anne’s Church, Shandon in Cork City prompting her to write a choral piece The bells of Shandon. She was examiner in music at the Cork Municipal School of Music (1914-19) and in 1924 she was appointed corporation Gaelic music lecturer at University College Cork – the costs of the position were paid by Cork Municipality – a position she held until her death on 16 January 1934 at 43 South Mall, Cork.  

Having published ten books including Schumann (1903), How to listen to an orchestra (1913), and The Profession of Music (1926), Patterson also contributed to various journals and gave a series of popular radio broadcasts. Under the name ‘Niamh’, she wrote articles in the Journal of the Ivernian Society. She had three versions of her name in Irish: Eíthne Nic Pheadair, Áine Nic Pheadair, and Áine Nic Ghiolla Pheadair.

Today’s Feis Ceoil offers the Dr Annie Patterson Medal in her honour – a competition in which musicians must play a ‘setting of two Irish airs of contrasting character for voice with Irish harp or Irish harp alone’ 

sources:, and

Saturday 14 October / Wednesday 25 October 2022

Saturday 14 October 1922

“The usual quarterly meeting was held in the School of Art on Saturday….The irregular attendance in the schools was severely commented upon, and after a lengthy discussion the following resolution was unanimously adopted:-

“That we, the Cork City Branch of the I.N.T.O [Irish National Teachers Organisation], request the Minister for Home Affairs to sanction provisionally, with a view to subsequent legislation on similar lines, the Irish Education Act (Compulsory Attendance) as amended by the Cork City Sinn Fein Executive, and worked with such satisfactory results in the Cork City Parliamentary Area during the past school year. That copies of this resolution, accompanied by a copy of the amended Act be sent to the local T.D.’s our General Secretary, and to the Chairman of the Labour Party in the Dail for the purpose of giving expression to the terms of the resolution.”

[source: Irish Examiner p3Tuesday 18 October 1922]

Wednesday 25 October 1922



Dáil Eireann sitting as a Constituent Assembly in this Provisional Parliament, acknowledging that all lawful authority comes from God to the people and in the confidence that the National life an unity of Ireland shall thus be restored, hereby proclaims the establishment of The Irish Free State (otherwise called Saorstát Eireann) and in the exercise of undoubted right, decrees and enacts as follows:-

  1. The Constitution set forth in the First Schedule hereto annexed shall be the Constitution of The Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann).
  2. The said Constitution shall be construed with reference to the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland set forth in the Second Schedule hereto annexed (hereinafter referred to as “the Scheduled Treaty”) which are hereby given the force of law, and it any provision of the said Constitution or of any amendment thereof or of any law made thereunder is in any respect repugnant to any of the provisions of the Scheduled Treaty, it shall, to the extent only of such repugnancy, be absolutely void and inoperative and the Parliament and the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) shall respectively pass such further legislation and do all such other things as may be necessary to implement the Scheduled Treaty.
  3. This Act may be cited for all purposes as the Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) Act, 1922.

For further details on the Articles of the Act:

Friday 29 September 1922 / Monday 9 October 1922

Friday 29 September 1922


‘[Before the Hon. the Recorder, K.C.] … In the claim of Messrs. Punch and Co., Academy Street were allowed £316 for the partial destruction of their motor lorry which was commandeered by armed men on July 12th, and was recovered at Cobh barrack on August 11th. Its value when it was found was about £20, and it cost £376. The engine had been dismantled and smashed with a hammer, the front wheels and seven tyres were missing, and other damage was caused.’

[source: Irish Examiner p3 Saturday 30 September 1922]

Monday 9 October 1922


Choral Classes Newspaper cutting


‘Mr. A. F. Sharman Crawford (Chairman) presided Present- Rev. Bro. Walker: Messrs. M.J. O’Riordan, T.C: B.M. Egan. T.C.: J.T. Keating. B.A.; J.J. O’Connor; J. Fitzpatrick, T.C.; George Nason; J. Conlon, M.A.; J. Cashman.

A deputation was appointed to wait on the military authorities to request the vacation of the School of Music.’

[source: Evening Echo Tuesday 10 October 1922]

20 / 22 September

Friday 20 September


“Last night Moore’s Hotel, Cork [Morrison’s Quay] was attacked from three directions, bombs and a machine-gun being used by the irregulars. Almost simultaneously bombs were hurled into the yard at Catfort [between Nano Nagle Place and Elizabeth Fort], while there was some sniping at Emmet Place, and also it is stated, in the vicinity of Sullivan’s Quay.

None of the troops were hit, but some civilians were wounded, none very seriously. One girl, however, Miss Kathleen Curtin, of St. Finbarr Street, was wounded just above the ankles, near her home, and she is at present detained in the Mercy Hospital. She also has a slight wound in the shoulder-blade.”

[source: Evening Echo p1, Saturday 21 September 1922]

Friday 22 September



“Last night, about quarter past nine o’clock, a bomb was thrown at Messrs. Johnson and Perrott’s garage, Emmet Place, where several attacks have previously been made. The missile exploded, wounding four of the soldiers [Pro-Treaty], none, however, seriously, while one girl was also injured.

A second bomb was also thrown, and an outburst of firing followed. The troops replied, but the attackers made their escape under the cover of darkness.

Of the four soldiers, who were removed to the Mercy Hospital subsequently, one was injured in the feet in four places, by bomb splinters, but not seriously. Another had a shrapnel wound in the heel, rather serious, as is a third who was hit in the thigh. The fourth, injured in the foot and hand, was not detained.

The girl was Miss Delia O’Brien, aged about 17, of 5 Emmet Place [today above Costa Coffee] and she, too is not badly injured. Another girl named Morrisey, from Cornmarket Street, is said to have been slightly injured. Later there was some firing in the South Mall area, but no casualties are reported.” [source:

Evening Echo p1, Saturday 23 September 1922]

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